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Corti D.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB | Corti D.,Humabs Biomedical SA | Lanzavecchia A.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB | Lanzavecchia A.,ETH Zurich
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2013

A fascinating aspect of viral evolution relates to the ability of viruses to escape the adaptive immune response. The widely held view has been that the great variability of viral glycoproteins would be an absolute obstacle to the development of antibody-based therapies or vaccines that could confer broad and long-lasting protection. In the past five years, new approaches have been developed to interrogate human memory B cells and plasma cells with high efficiency and to isolate several broadly neutralizing antiviral antibodies against highly variable pathogens such as HIV-1 and influenza virus. These antibodies not only provide new tools for prophylaxis and therapy for viral diseases but also identify conserved epitopes that may be used to design new vaccines capable of conferring broader protection. © Copyright 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb and Yale University | Date: 2013-11-05

Genetically modified non-human animals are provided that may be used to model human hematopoietic cell development, function, or disease. The genetically modified non-human animals comprise a nucleic acid encoding human IL-6 operably linked to an IL-6 promoter. In some instances, the genetically modified non-human animal expressing human IL-6 also expresses at least one of human M-CSF, human IL-3, human GM-CSF, human SIRPa or human TPO. In some instances, the genetically modified non-human animal is immunodeficient. In some such instances, the genetically modified non-human animal is engrafted with healthy or diseased human hematopoietic cells. Also provided are methods for using the subject genetically modified non-human animals in modeling human hematopoietic cell development, function, and/or disease, as well as reagents and kits thereof that find use in making the subject genetically modified non-human animals and/or practicing the subject methods.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb and Yale University | Date: 2013-10-14

A mouse with a humanization of the mIL-3 gene and the mGM-CSF gene, a knockout of a mRAG gene, and a knockout of a mIl2rg subunit gene; and optionally a humanization of the TPO gene is described. A RAG/Il2rg KO/hTPO knock-in mouse is described. A mouse engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that maintains a human immune cell (HIC) population derived from the HSCs and that is infectable by a human pathogen, e.g., S. typhi or M. tuberculosis is described. A mouse that models a human pathogen infection that is poorly modeled in mice is described, e.g., a mouse that models a human mycobacterial infection, wherein the mouse develops one or more granulomas comprising human immune cells. A mouse that comprises a human hematopoietic malignancy that originates from an early human hematopoietic cells is described, e.g., a myeloid leukemia or a myeloproliferative neoplasia.


Schmid M.A.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB | Schmid M.A.,University of Zürich | Kingston D.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB | Boddupalli S.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine IRB | And 3 more authors.
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2010

Clarifying the signals that lead to dendritic cell (DC) development and identifying cellular intermediates on their way to DC differentiation are essential steps to understand the dynamic regulation of number, localization, and functionality of these cells. In the past decade, much knowledge on cytokines, transcription factors, and successive progenitors involved in steady-state and demand-adapted DC development was gained. From the stage of multipotent progenitors, DCs are generated from Flt3+ intermediates, irrespective of lymphoid or myeloid commitment, making fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand one of the major regulators for DC development. Additional key cytokines involved are granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and M-CSF, with each being essential for particular DC subsets and leading to specific activation of downstream transcription factors. In this review, we seek to draw an integrative view on how instructive cytokine signals acting on intermediate progenitors might lead to the generation of specific DC subsets in steady-state and during inflammation. We hypothesize that the lineage potential of a progenitor might be determined by the set of cytokine receptors expressed that make it responsive to further receive lineage instructive signals. Commitment to a certain lineage might consequently occur when lineage-relevant cytokine receptors are further upregulated and others for alternative lineages are lost. Along this line, we emphasize the role that diverse microenvironments have in influencing the generation of DC subsets with specific functions throughout the body. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2013-09-06

The invention relates generally to genetically modified non-human animals expressing human polypeptides and their methods of use.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2016-04-12

Genetically modified non-human animals expressing human SIRP and human IL-15 from the non-human animal genome are provided. Also provided are methods for making non-human animals expressing human SIRP and human IL-15 from the non-human animal genome, and methods for using non-human animals expressing human SIRP and human IL-15 from the non-human animal genome. These animals and methods find many uses in the art, including, for example, in modeling human T cell and/or natural killer (NK) cell development and function, in modeling human pathogen infection of human T cells and/or NK cells, and in various in vivo screens.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2016-06-24

Genetically modified non-human animals are provided that may be used to model human hematopoietic cell development, function, or disease. The genetically modified non-human animals comprise a nucleic acid encoding human IL-6 operably linked to an IL-6 promoter. In some instances, the genetically modified non-human animal expressing human IL-6 also expresses at least one of human M-CSF, human IL-3, human GM-CSF, human SIRPa or human TPO. In some instances, the genetically modified non-human animal is immunodeficient. In some such instances, the genetically modified non-human animal is engrafted with healthy or diseased human hematopoietic cells. Also provided are methods for using the subject genetically modified non-human animals in modeling human hematopoietic cell development, function, and/or disease, as well as reagents and kits thereof that find use in making the subject genetically modified non-human animals and/or practicing the subject methods.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2016-08-17

A mouse with a humanization of the mIL-3 gene and the mGM-CSF gene, a knockout of a mRAG gene, and a knockout of a mII2rg subunit gene; and optionally a humanization of the TPO gene is described. A RAG/II2rg KO/hTPO knock-in mouse is described. A mouse engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that maintains a human immune cell (HIC) population derived from the HSCs and that is infectable by a human pathogen, e.g., S. typhi or M. tuberculosis is described. A mouse that models a human pathogen infection that is poorly modeled in mice is described, e.g., a mouse that models a human mycobacterial infection, wherein the mouse develops one or more granulomas comprising human immune cells. A mouse that comprises a human hematopoietic malignancy that originates from an early human hematopoietic cells is described, e.g., a myeloid leukemia or a yeloproliferative neoplasia.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2015-05-18

Genetically modified non-human animals expressing human EPO from the animal genome are provided. Also provided are methods for making non-human animals expressing human EPO from the non-human animal genome, and methods for using non-human animals expressing human EPO from the non-human animal genome. These animals and methods find many uses in the art, including, for example, in modeling human erythropoiesis and erythrocyte function; in modeling human pathogen infection of erythrocytes; in in vivo screens for agents that modulate erythropoiesis and/or erythrocyte function, e.g. in a healthy or a diseased state; in in vivo screens for agents that are toxic to erythrocytes or erythrocyte progenitors; in in vivo screens for agents that prevent against, mitigate, or reverse the toxic effects of toxic agents on erythrocytes or erythrocyte progenitors; in in vivo screens of erythrocytes or erythrocyte progenitors from an individual to predict the responsiveness of an individual to a disease therapy.


Patent
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Yale University and Institute For Research In Biomedicine Irb | Date: 2014-08-26

Genetically modified mice comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a human M-CSF protein are provided. Also provided are genetically modified mice comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a human M-CSF protein that have been engrafted with human cells such as human hematopoietic cells, and methods for making such engrafted mice. These mice find use in a number of applications, such as in modeling human immune disease and pathogen infection; in in vivo screens for agents that modulate hematopoietic cell development and/or activity, e.g. in a healthy or a diseased state; in in vivo screens for agents that are toxic to hematopoietic cells; in in vivo screens for agents that prevent against, mitigate, or reverse the toxic effects of toxic agents on hematopoietic cells; in in vivo screens of human hematopoietic cells from an individual to predict the responsiveness of an individual to a disease therapy, etc.

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