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Legrand R.,University of Rouen | Lucas N.,University of Rouen | Breton J.,University of Rouen | Azhar S.,University of Rouen | And 5 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin's orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1. nM) together or not with total IgG (1. nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3. h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. Source


Mareschal S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mareschal S.,University of Rouen | Mareschal S.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Dubois S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Summary: Thanks to its free licensing and the development of initiatives like Bioconductor, R has become an essential part of the bioinformatics toolbox in the past years and is more and more confronted with genomically located data. While separate solutions are available to manipulate and visualize such data, no R package currently offers the efficiency required for computationally intensive tasks such as interactive genome browsing. The package proposed here fulfills this specific need, providing a multilevel interface suitable for most needs, from a completely interfaced genome browser to low-level classes and methods. Its time and memory efficiency have been challenged in a human dataset, where it outperformed existing solutions by several orders of magnitude. Availability and implementation: R sources and packages are freely available at the CRAN repository and dedicated Web site: http://bioinformatics.ovsa.fr/Rgb. Distributed under the GPL 3 license, compatible with most operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS) and architectures. © The Author 2014. Source


Dumont L.,University of Rouen | Dumont L.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Arkoun B.,University of Rouen | Arkoun B.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | And 10 more authors.
Andrology | Year: 2015

Testicular tissue cryopreservation offers the hope of preserved future fertility to pre-pubertal boys with cancer before exposition to gonadotoxic treatments. The objective of this study was to compare controlled slow freezing (CSF) with five vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue and to evaluate the best protocol that could provide a successful completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation. Testicular tissue from 24 mice at 6.5 days post-partum (dpp) was used to compare several vitrification protocols with one another, as well as with a CSF protocol. Toxicity test using additional 12 mice was performed for all cryopreservation solutions. Fresh tissue (FT) from six mice was used as a control. Once the optimal vitrification protocol was selected [the modified solid surface vitrification No. 1 (mSSV1)], testes from 18 mice were cultured in vitro for 30 days with (i) fresh, (ii) slow-frozen/thawed and (iii) vitrified/warmed tissues. Testes from six mice at 36.5 dpp were used as controls. At day 30 of in vitro culture, germ cells of the seminiferous tubules showed a high ability to proliferate and elongated spermatids were observed after both freezing techniques, confirming the successful completion of in vitro spermatogenesis. However, after mSSV1, the morphological alterations and the percentage of pyknotic seminiferous tubules were lower than CSF (4.67 ± 0.53 vs. 10.1 ± 1.12 and 22.7 ± 2.83% vs. 37.3 ± 4.24% respectively). Moreover, the number of flagellated spermatozoa produced per mg of tissue was higher for mSSV1 than for CSF (35 ± 3 vs. 9 ± 4 cells), with amounts of secreted testosterone during the culture close to those of FT. The mSSV1 protocol resulted in success rates better than CSF in maintaining testicular tissue structure, tubular morphology and tissue functions not solely for immediate frozen/thawed tissues but also after a long-term in vitro culture. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology. Source


Legrand R.,University of Rouen | Legrand R.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Lucas N.,University of Rouen | Lucas N.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | And 12 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin's orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1 nM) together or not with total IgG (1 nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3 h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. Source

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