Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB

Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France

Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB

Sotteville-lès-Rouen, France

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Legrand R.,University of Rouen | Lucas N.,University of Rouen | Breton J.,University of Rouen | Azhar S.,University of Rouen | And 5 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin's orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1. nM) together or not with total IgG (1. nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3. h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.


Dumont L.,University of Rouen | Dumont L.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Arkoun B.,University of Rouen | Arkoun B.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | And 10 more authors.
Andrology | Year: 2015

Testicular tissue cryopreservation offers the hope of preserved future fertility to pre-pubertal boys with cancer before exposition to gonadotoxic treatments. The objective of this study was to compare controlled slow freezing (CSF) with five vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue and to evaluate the best protocol that could provide a successful completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation. Testicular tissue from 24 mice at 6.5 days post-partum (dpp) was used to compare several vitrification protocols with one another, as well as with a CSF protocol. Toxicity test using additional 12 mice was performed for all cryopreservation solutions. Fresh tissue (FT) from six mice was used as a control. Once the optimal vitrification protocol was selected [the modified solid surface vitrification No. 1 (mSSV1)], testes from 18 mice were cultured in vitro for 30 days with (i) fresh, (ii) slow-frozen/thawed and (iii) vitrified/warmed tissues. Testes from six mice at 36.5 dpp were used as controls. At day 30 of in vitro culture, germ cells of the seminiferous tubules showed a high ability to proliferate and elongated spermatids were observed after both freezing techniques, confirming the successful completion of in vitro spermatogenesis. However, after mSSV1, the morphological alterations and the percentage of pyknotic seminiferous tubules were lower than CSF (4.67 ± 0.53 vs. 10.1 ± 1.12 and 22.7 ± 2.83% vs. 37.3 ± 4.24% respectively). Moreover, the number of flagellated spermatozoa produced per mg of tissue was higher for mSSV1 than for CSF (35 ± 3 vs. 9 ± 4 cells), with amounts of secreted testosterone during the culture close to those of FT. The mSSV1 protocol resulted in success rates better than CSF in maintaining testicular tissue structure, tubular morphology and tissue functions not solely for immediate frozen/thawed tissues but also after a long-term in vitro culture. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.


Mareschal S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mareschal S.,University of Rouen | Mareschal S.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Dubois S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Summary: Thanks to its free licensing and the development of initiatives like Bioconductor, R has become an essential part of the bioinformatics toolbox in the past years and is more and more confronted with genomically located data. While separate solutions are available to manipulate and visualize such data, no R package currently offers the efficiency required for computationally intensive tasks such as interactive genome browsing. The package proposed here fulfills this specific need, providing a multilevel interface suitable for most needs, from a completely interfaced genome browser to low-level classes and methods. Its time and memory efficiency have been challenged in a human dataset, where it outperformed existing solutions by several orders of magnitude. Availability and implementation: R sources and packages are freely available at the CRAN repository and dedicated Web site: http://bioinformatics.ovsa.fr/Rgb. Distributed under the GPL 3 license, compatible with most operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS) and architectures. © The Author 2014.


Belmonte L.,University of Rouen | Belmonte L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Belmonte L.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Achamrah N.,University of Rouen | And 30 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and altered gut microbiota. However, the molecular origin of the inflammation remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are key regulators of innate immune response and their activation seems also to be involved in the control of food intake. We used activity-based anorexia (ABA) model to investigate the role of TLR4 and its contribution in anorexia-associated low-grade inflammation. Here, we found that ABA affected early the intestinal inflammatory status and the hypothalamic response. Indeed, TLR4 was upregulated both on colonic epithelial cells and intestinal macrophages, leading to elevated downstream mucosal cytokine production. These mucosal changes occurred earlier than hypothalamic changes driving to increased levels of IL-1β and IL-1R1 as well as increased levels of plasma corticosterone. Paradoxically, TLR4-deficient mice exhibited greater vulnerability to ABA with increased mortality rate, suggesting a major contribution of TLR4-mediated responses during ABA-induced weight loss. © 2016 The Author(s).


Guernet A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guernet A.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Mungamuri S.K.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Cartier D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 20 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2016

Intratumor genetic heterogeneity underlies the ability of tumors to evolve and adapt to different environmental conditions. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and specific DNA barcodes, we devised a strategy to recapitulate and trace the emergence of subpopulations of cancer cells containing a mutation of interest. We used this approach to model different mechanisms of lung cancer cell resistance to EGFR inhibitors and to assess effects of combined drug therapies. By overcoming intrinsic limitations of current approaches, CRISPR-barcoding also enables investigation of most types of genetic modifications, including repair of oncogenic driver mutations. Finally, we used highly complex barcodes inserted at a specific genome location as a means of simultaneously tracing the fates of many thousands of genetically labeled cancer cells. CRISPR-barcoding is a straightforward and highly flexible method that should greatly facilitate the functional investigation of specific mutations, in a context that closely mimics the complexity of cancer. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Coly P.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Coly P.-M.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Perzo N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Perzo N.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | And 18 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2016

Chemotactic migration is a fundamental behavior of cells and its regulation is particularly relevant in physiological processes such as organogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor metastasis. The majority of chemotactic stimuli activate cell surface receptors that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. Although the autophagy machinery has been shown to play a role in cell migration, its mode of regulation by chemotactic GPCRs remains largely unexplored. We found that ligand-induced activation of 2 chemotactic GPCRs, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the urotensin 2 receptor UTS2R, triggers a marked reduction in the biogenesis of autophagosomes, in both HEK-293 and U87 glioblastoma cells. Chemotactic GPCRs exert their anti-autophagic effects through the activation of CAPNs, which prevent the formation of pre-autophagosomal vesicles from the plasma membrane. We further demonstrated that CXCR4- or UTS2R-induced inhibition of autophagy favors the formation of adhesion complexes to the extracellular matrix and is required for chemotactic migration. Altogether, our data reveal a new link between GPCR signaling and the autophagy machinery, and may help to envisage therapeutic strategies in pathological processes such as cancer cell invasion. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Legrand R.,University of Rouen | Legrand R.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | Lucas N.,University of Rouen | Lucas N.,Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine IRIB | And 12 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin's orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1 nM) together or not with total IgG (1 nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3 h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

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