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Dominguez-Rebolledo A.E.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC UCLM CSIC JCCM | Fernandez-Santos M.R.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC UCLM CSIC JCCM | Fernandez-Santos M.R.,Institute for Regional Development IDR | Bisbal A.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC UCLM CSIC JCCM | And 5 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010

Antioxidants could improve sperm media, extending the viability of spermatozoa and protecting their DNA. The protective ability of lipoic acid, melatonin, Trolox and crocin was tested on red deer spermatozoa incubated at 37°C. Cryopreserved spermatozoa were thawed and incubated with 1 mM or 0.1 mM of each antioxidant, with or without oxidative stress (100 μM Fe 2+). Motility (CASA), viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomal status were assessed. Lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde production), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA status (TUNEL) were checked at 4 h. Incubation alone increased ROS and decreased motility. Oxidative stress intensified these effects, increasing lipoperoxidation and DNA damage. Lipoic acid had little protective effect, whereas 1 mM melatonin showed limited protection. Trolox lowered ROS and lipoperoxidation both in oxidised and non-oxidised samples. In oxidised samples, Trolox prevented DNA and acrosomal damage, and ameliorated motility. Crocin at 1 mM showed similar results to Trolox, but noticeably stimulated motility and had no effect on lipoperoxidation. In a second experiment, a broader range of crocin and melatonin concentrations were tested, confirming the effects of crocin (positive effects noticeable at 0.5-0.75 mM), but showing an increase in lipoperoxidation at 2 mM. Melatonin was increasingly effective at 2.5 and 5 mM (ROS, lipoperoxidation and DNA status). Crocin seems a promising new antioxidant, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the consequences of motility stimulation and confirming its effect on lipoperoxidation. Melatonin might be useful at relatively high concentrations, compared to Trolox. © 2010 CSIRO.


Maroto-Morales A.,National Wildlife Research Institute | Soler A.J.,National Wildlife Research Institute | Fernandez-Santos M.R.,National Wildlife Research Institute | Roldan E.R.S.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The existence of sperm subpopulations within the mammalian ejaculate has now been widely recognized. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data exist regarding the existence of sperm morphometric subpopulations within the ovine ejaculate. Computer assisted sperm morphometry analysis (ASMA) data and clustering methods were used in this study to identify sperm-head subpopulations in ram semen. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, ejaculates from 226 mature rams of the Manchega breed belonging to 36 different herds were used. A minimum of 100 sperm heads were analyzed from each male and eight morphometric characteristics for each individual sperm were recorded. Subpopulation analysis was performed in sequential steps: variable group analysis and correlation analysis to select which morphometric characteristics to use in cluster analyses; nonhierarchical clustering analysis using sperm head length and p2a (also known as roundness) shape factor as initial classificatory variables; and hierarchical clustering analysis to obtain the final number of clusters. The clustering analyses, based on 26 306 individual cells, revealed the existence of four sperm subpopulations (SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4) with different morphometric characteristics. Significant differences in the proportion of spermatozoa in the SP1 and SP3 were found between rams belonging to different herds. In Experiment 2, the intra- and intermale variability on the distribution of sperm subpopulations was assessed. Three ejaculates from each of 21 rams were collected and the same multistep clustering analysis was performed. For all subpopulations defined, the intermale variability resulted in high values, being the intramale variability much lower. This fact would allow the use of sperm head morphometry to characterize a male and might provide valuable information to asses its fertility. In conclusion, our results show that using computer assisted sperm morphometry analysis and multivariate cluster analyses, four sperm subpopulations with different head phenotype were identified in ram ejaculates. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Maroto-Morales A.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC | Ramon M.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC | Soler A.J.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC | Esteso M.C.,University of León | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Sperm morphology has been identified as a characteristic that can be useful in the prediction of fertilizing capacity. The aim of the current study was to characterize ram sperm heads morphometrically as a basis for future studies on the relationship between sperm quality and male fertility. For this purpose, ejaculates from 241 mature rams (Ovis aries) belonging to 36 different dairy herds were used to evaluate sperm head morphometry by means of the Sperm-Class Analyzer. Sperm samples, collected by artificial vagina, were diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for the analysis. A microscope slide was prepared from single-diluted fresh sperm samples. Slides were air-dried and stained with Hemacolor. A minimum of 115 sperm heads were analyzed from each male. Each sperm head was measured for four primary parameters (area, perimeter, length, width), and four derived parameters of head shape were obtained. Significant differences in sperm head morphometry were found between rams (CV for morphometric parameters ranging from 0.9 to 10.1), and there were marked differences in the sperm morphometric composition of the ejaculates. For all parameters, within-animal CVs were greater than between-animal CVs. Within-animal CVs ranged from 4.2 to 10.6, showing the high degree of sperm polymorphism present in the sheep ejaculate. Significant differences in sperm head morphometry were found between rams belonging to the different herds (i.e., origin). An important part of the variability observed on morphometric parameters was due to the male itself, with an explained variance ranging from 3.6% for regularity to 34.0% for p2a (perimeter2/[4 × π × area]). The explained variance by the herd of origin of the males ranged from 0.6% for regularity to 10.8% for area. Our results suggest that a genetic component might be responsible for the observed sperm head morphometry differences between herds. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Dominguez-Rebolledo A.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC UCLM CSIC JCCM | Martinez-Pastor F.,University of León | Fernandez-Santos M.R.,National Wildlife Research Institute IREC UCLM CSIC JCCM | Fernandez-Santos M.R.,Institute for Regional Development IDR | And 5 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: Several methods are used to measure lipid peroxidation (LPO) in spermatozoa. The objective of this study was comparing the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) method and the BODIPY 581/591 C11 (B581) and BODIPY 665/676 C11 (B665) fluorescent probes to measure induced peroxidative damage in thawed epididymal spermatozoa from Iberian red deer. Samples from three males were thawed, pooled, diluted in PBS, incubated at room temperature and assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h under different experimental conditions: Control, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 0.1 mm or 1 mm, or tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) 0.1 mm or 1 mm. LPO was assessed by the TBARS assay [malondialdehyde (MDA) detection] and by the fluorescence probes B581 and B665 (microplate fluorimeter and flow cytometry). Increasing MDA levels were only detectable at 1 mm of TBH or H2O2. Both fluorescence probes, measured with fluorometer, detected significant increases of LPO with time in all treatments, except Control. Flow cytometry allowed for higher sensitivity, with both probes showing a significant linear relationship of increasing LPO with time for all oxidizing treatments (p < 0.001). All methods showed a good agreement, except TBARS, and flow cytometry showed the highest repeatability. Our results show that both B581 and B665 might be used for LPO analysis in Iberian red deer epididymal spermatozoa, together with fluorometry or flow cytometry. Yet, the TBARS method offered comparatively limited sensitivity, and further research must determine the source of that limitation. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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