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Jung Y.,Institute for Regenerative Cures | Jung Y.,Harvard University | Nolta J.A.,Institute for Regenerative Cures | Nolta J.A.,University of California at Davis
Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2016

We have previously described generation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. One of the central questions in stem cell biology is to understand how stem cells regulate the decision to self-renew vs. differentiate, at the molecular level. In the current studies we used loss-of-function and gain-of-function analyses in primary human MSCs to demonstrate that BMI1 is a critical regulator for self-renewal and multipotency in this interesting cell type. Knockdown of BMI1 in MSCs reduced self-renewal by upregulation of p16INK4A and increased apoptosis. Knockdown of p16INK4A partially rescued the self-renewal defect in MSCs with loss of BMI1. Overexpressed BMI1 reduced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation by repressing p16INK4A. Loss of BMI1 resulted in deregulation of PPARγ, an adipogenic factor, and imprinted gene network (IGN), which blocks osteogenesis. Knockdown of PPARγ or IGN in BMI1 defect models restored osteogenesis. Overexpression of BMI1 repressed transcripts of RUNX2 and PPARγ, in osteogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively, which lead to decreased lineage specification potential in MSCs. These data show that BMI1 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of human MSCs. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Schie I.W.,University of California at Davis | Nolte L.,Bielefeld University | Pedersen T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Smith Z.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2013

Cellular lipid droplets are the least studied and least understood cellular organelles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Despite a significant body of research studying the physiology of lipid droplets it has not yet been possible to fully determine the composition of individual cellular lipid droplets. In this paper we use Raman spectroscopy on single cellular lipid droplets and least-squares fitting of pure fatty acid spectra to determine the composition of individual lipid droplets in cells after treatment with different ratios of oleic and palmitic acid. We validate the results of the Raman spectroscopy-based single lipid droplet analysis with results obtained by gas chromatography analysis of millions of cells, and find that our approach can accurately predict the relative amount of a specific fatty acid in the lipid droplet. Based on these results we show that the fatty acid composition in individual lipid droplets is on average similar to that of all lipid droplets found in the sample. Furthermore, we expand this approach to the investigation of the lipid composition in single cellular peroxisomes. We determine the location of cellular peroxisomes based on two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of peroxisomes labeled with the green fluorescent protein, and successive Raman spectroscopy of peroxisomes. We find that in some cases peroxisomes can produce a detectable CARS signal, and that the peroxisomal Raman spectra exhibit an oleic acid-like signature. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Watson K.D.,University of California at Davis | Lai C.-Y.,University of California at Davis | Qin S.,University of California at Davis | Kruse D.E.,University of California at Davis | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) tumor phenotype is associated with impaired chemotherapeutic delivery and a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the application of therapeutic ultrasound methods available in the clinic to increase nanotherapeutic particle accumulation in epithelial and EMT tumors by labeling particles with a positron emission tomography tracer. Epithelial tumors were highly vascularized with tight cell-cell junctions, compared with EMT tumors where cells displayed an irregular, elongated shape with loosened cell-cell adhesions and a reduction in E-cadherin and cytokeratins 8/18 and 19. Without ultrasound, the accumulation of liposomal nanoparticles administered to tumors in vivo was approximately 1.5 times greater in epithelial tumors than EMT tumors. When ultrasound was applied, both nanoaccumulation and apparent tumor permeability were increased in both settings. Notably, ultrasound effects differed with thermal and mechanical indices, such that increasing the thermal ultrasound dose increased nanoaccumulation in EMT tumors. Taken together, our results illustrate how ultrasound can be used to enhance nanoparticle accumulation in tumors by reducing their intratumoral pressure and increasing their vascular permeability. ©2012 AACR.

McMahill B.G.,Institute for Regenerative Cures | Borjesson D.L.,University of California at Davis | Sieber-Blum M.,Northumbria University | Nolta J.A.,Institute for Regenerative Cures | Sturges B.K.,University of California at Davis
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2014

The use of cell transplantation for spinal cord injury is a rapidly evolving field in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal models are currently being used. However, translation to human patients is still a challenging step. Dogs are of increasing importance as a translational model for human disease since there is a greater awareness of the need to increase the quality of preclinical data. The use of dogs ultimately brings benefit to both human and veterinary medicine. In this review we analyze experimental and clinical studies using cell transplantation for canine spinal cord injury. Overall, in experimental studies, transplantation groups showed improvement over control groups. Improvements were measured at the functional, electrophysiological, histological, RNA and protein levels. Most clinical studies support beneficial effects of cell transplantation despite the fact that methodological limitations preclude definitive conclusions. However, the mechanisms of action and underlying the behavior of transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord remain unclear. Overall, we conclude here that stem cell interventions are a promising avenue for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Canines are a promising model that may help bridge the gap between translational research and human clinical trials. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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