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Frankfurter, Germany

When the plant Cannabis sativa L. was included in molecular genetic research in the middle of the 1990s, the initial analytical methods were focused on identification and sex determination of the plants. This was carried out with nuclear and plastid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The first analyses on individualization of single plants were carried out with randomly amplified polymorphisms (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) methods; however, the most complex methods are now based on short tandem repeats (STR), which also have a fundamental role in human DNA fingerprinting and offer the greatest potential for discrimination. This article provides the names of the most prominent Cannabis DNA research groups in Germany to facilitate finding cooperation and contact partners. The current Cannabis DNA research is focused on establishing standards, e.g. an allelic ladder for Cannabis STRs, which will provide a reliable molecular genetic comparison of investigation results between the various laboratories. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Mebs D.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin
Hautarzt | Year: 2014

Background: Jellyfish are distributed worldwide; they cause local skin injuries upon contact which are often followed by systemic signs of envenoming.Objectives: Which jellyfish species are of medical importance, which skin reactions and systemic symptoms occur, which first-aid measures and treatment options exist?Methods: Review of the medical literature and discussion of first-aid and therapeutic options.Results: Jellyfish capable of causing skin injuries occur in almost all oceans. Several jellyfish species may cause severe, potentially lethal, systemic symptoms; they include the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) and box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus).Conclusions: Among the injuries and envenoming symptoms caused by marine organisms, jellyfish dermatitis should not be underestimated. Skin reactions may not only a dermatological problem, but also be accompanied by complex systemic toxic symptoms which are a challenge for internists. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Niederegger S.,University Hospital Jena | Spiess R.,University Hospital Jena | Spiess R.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

First results of a new method for species determination in third instar larvae of saprophagous blowflies are introduced. Cuticular attachment sites of a limited number of transversal muscles are visualized for light microscopic analysis. After removing the muscles and staining the cuticle, the attachment sites become visible as laterally symmetrical segmental clusters of dark dots. The combined patterns of five such clusters, located in the second, third and fourth segments, show sufficient differences to allow reliable separation of externally very similar larval Lucilia sericata and Lucilia illustris as well as Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina, the most common saprophagous blowfly species in Europe. Species determination even in poorly conserved, discoloured and fragmented blowfly larvae becomes possible with this new method. The method can primarily be applied for postmortem interval (PMI) calculations in forensic entomology. Interspecific morphological similarity of the larvae and differences in growth rate make species determination an essential requisite for an exact PMI calculation. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Courts C.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin | Madea B.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin
Rechtsmedizin | Year: 2012

In this article a digression into the biology and analysis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) will be followed by a review of the possibilities and aspects of the forensic analytic use of individual RNA forms. Various forms of RNA fulfil many core functions in living cells and tissues. Messenger RNA (mRNA) serves as a temporary information transporter of gene expression and the analysis of total RNA of a cell at any point in time, the transcriptome, allows the determination of cell type and state. This can be used in forensic problems for the assignment of biological specimens and components of mixed stains containing different body fluids to particular tissues. The relationship of the various degradation processes of individual RNA types can be used for the molecular age estimation of biological stains. The differential and stage-specific expression of mRNA is useful for forensic evaluation of wound age and condition, healing processes and also gestational age and can also provide evidence on pathophysiological processes related to the stages of dying. With the continuously increasing importance, multitude of methods and scope of forensic RNA analysis, the potential of investigating micro-RNA expression patterns has also recently been evaluated for forensic casework. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Bassan D.M.,Institute For Organische Chemie | Erdmann F.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin | Krull R.,Institute For Organische Chemie | Krull R.,Institute For Rechtsmedizin
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination in human serum of 43 common drugs of abuse and their metabolites belonging to the different chemical and toxicological classes of amphetamines, benzodiazepines, dibenzazepines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, opioids, phencyclidine, tricyclic antidepressants, and zolpidem, using 33 deuterated standards, is presented. The sample treatment was developed to be a very simple protein precipitation and filtration. All analyses were performed with a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. All analytes were calibrated up to 550 μg/L. The limit of detection ranged from 0.6 ng/mL (EDDP) to 13.7 ng/mL (flunitrazepam). The method has been validated according to the guidelines of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische und Forensische Chemie, using three multiple reaction mode (MRM) transitions and retention time for positive compound identification, instead of two MRMs, in anticipation of the new guidelines for January 2011. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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