The French Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire is a public official establishment with an industrial and commercial aspect created by the AFSSE Act and by the February 22, 2002 decreed n°2002-254. The IRSN is placed under the conjoint authority of the Defence minister, the Environmental minister, the Industry minister and the Health and Research minister.The IRSN gathers more than 1 500 experts and researchers from the Institut de protection et de sûreté nucléaire and the Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants . These scientists are thus competent on nuclear safety, radioactive protection and control of nuclear and sensitive materials.The IRSN realize investigations, expertise assessements and studies on the fields of nuclear safety, protection against ionizing radiation, protection and control of nuclear material, and protection against voluntary ill-advised acts.IRSN officers are armed with the American made Smith & Wesson M&P9 pistol. Wikipedia.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 6.14M | Year: 2015
INCEFA-PLUS delivers new experimental data and new guidelines for assessment of environmental fatigue damage to ensure safe operation of European nuclear power plants. Austenitic stainless steels will be tested for the effects of mean strain, hold time and material roughness on fatigue endurance. Testing will be in nuclear Light Water Reactor environments. The three experimental parameters were selected in the framework of an in-kind project during which the current state of the art for this technical area was developed. The data obtained will be collected and standardised in an online fatigue database with the objective of organising a CEN workshop on this aspect. The gaps in available fatigue data lead to uncertainty in current assessments. The gaps, will be targeted so that fatigue assessment procedures can address behaviour under conditions closer to normal plant operation than is currently possible. Increased safety can thus be assured. INCEFA-PLUS also develops and disseminates a modified procedure for estimating environmental fatigue degradation. This will take better account of the effects of mean strain, hold time and surface finish. This will enable better management of nuclear components, making possible the long term operation (LTO) of NPPs under safer conditions. INCEFA-PLUS is relevant to the NFRP1-2014 programme because: Present guidance originates from NRC. In Europe various national programmes aim to develop counter proposals allowing greater operational efficiency with at least comparable safety assurance. INCEFA-PLUS brings these programmes together through which a strong EU response to the NRC methodology will be obtained with improved safety assurance through increased lifetime assessment reliability. INCEFA-PLUS improves comparability of data from EU programmes because partner laboratories will do some tests on a common material under common conditions. Reduced assessment uncertainty will enable easier maintenance of safety
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-03-2014 | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2015
Imagine an inherently safe reactor that produces all electricity world-wide for thousands of years, and recycles all actinides until fission. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) can reach this goal. The cylindrical reactor core contains actinide-fluorides mixed in lithium-fluoride. The liquid salt is at ambient pressure and can freely expand upon heating, giving a strong negative reactivity feedback. The core is in its most reactive state and any geometrical change lead to lower reactivity. In case of hypothetical accidents, the fuel salt will automatically be drained via freeze plugs into fail-safe tanks. The fuel salt is continuously cleaned and controlled in an integrated chemical plant. The MSFR can operate as a breeder reactor in the thorium fuel cycle or as a burner reactor fuelled with plutonium and minor actinides. In short: the MSFR excels in safety, sustainability and optimal waste management. Within SAMOFAR we will perform advanced experiments to proof the key safety features: The freeze plug and draining of the fuel salt Measurement of safety-related data of the fuel salt New coatings to structural materials like Ni-based alloys The dynamics of natural circulation of (internally heated) fuel salts The reductive processes to extract lanthanides and actinides from the fuel salt Furthermore, we will build a software simulator to demonstrate the operational transients, and we will show the mild responses of the MSFR to transients and accident scenarios, using new leading-edge multi-physics simulation tools including uncertainty quantification. All experimental and numerical results will be incorporated into the new reactor design, which will be subjected to a new integral safety assessment method. The goal of SAMOFAR is to deliver indisputable evidence of the excellent safety features of the MSFR, and to enable a consortium of important stakeholders like TSOs and industry, to advance with the MSFR up to the Demonstration phase.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 5.95M | Year: 2015
The HORIZON 2020 EURATOM Collaborative Project Cement-based materials, properties, evolution, barrier functions (Cebama) is developed with the overall objective to support implementation of geological disposal of nuclear waste by improving the knowledge base for the Safety Case. Cement-based materials are highly relevant in this context, being used as waste forms, liners and structural components or sealing materials in different types of host rocks and disposal concepts. Specific objectives of Cebama are (i) experimental studies of interface processes between cement based materials and host rocks or bentonite, and assessing the specific impact on transport properties, (ii) quantifying radionuclide retention under high pH cement conditions, and (iii) developing comprehensive modeling approaches. Modeling will support interpretation of results and prediction of the long-term evolution of key transport characteristics such as porosity, permeability and diffusion parameters especially in the interface between cement based materials and the engineered and natural barriers. Further objectives cover dissemination of results to scientific and non-scientific stakeholders as well as training and education of young professionals for carrying over the expertise into future implementation programms. To a large extent, the experimental and modelling work will be part of PhD theses, aiming at high scientific-technical impact and quality with respect to peer-reviewed publications. The 4 years project is implemented by a consortium of 27 partners consisting of large Research Institutions, Universities, one TSO and one SME from 9 EURATOM Signatory States, Switzerland and Japan. National Waste Management Organizations support Cebama by co-developing the work plan, participation in the End-User Group, granting co-funding to some beneficiaries, and providing for knowledge and information transfer.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 9.66M | Year: 2015
The Modern2020 project aims at providing the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme, taking into account the requirements of specific national programmes. The work allows advanced national radioactive waste disposal programmes to design monitoring systems suitable for deployment when repositories start operating in the next decade and supports less developed programmes and other stakeholders by illustrating how the national context can be taken into account in designing dedicated monitoring programmes tailored to their national needs. The work is established to understand what should be monitored within the frame of the wider safety cases and to provide methodology on how monitoring information can be used to support decision making and to plan for responding to monitoring results. Research and development work aims to improve and develop innovative repository monitoring techniques (wireless data transmission, alternative power supply sources, new sensors, geophysical methods) from the proof of feasibility stage to the technology development and demonstration phase. Innovative technical solutions facilitate the integration and flexibility of required monitoring components to ease the final implementation and adaptation of the monitoring system. Full-scale in-situ demonstrations of innovative monitoring techniques will further enhance the knowledge on the operational implementation of specific disposal monitoring and will demonstrate the performance of the state-of-the-art, the innovative techniques and their comparison with conventional ones. Finally, Modern2020 has the ambition to effectively engage local citizen stakeholders in the R&D monitoring activity by involving them at an early stage in a repository development programme in order to integrate their concerns and expectations into monitoring programmes.
Guipaud O.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013
All tissues can be damaged by ionizing radiation. Early biomarkers of radiation injury are critical for triage, treatment and follow-up of large numbers of people exposed to ionizing radiation after terrorist attacks or radiological accident, and for prediction of normal tissue toxicity before, during and after a treatment by radiotherapy. The comparative proteomic approach is a promising and powerful tool for the discovery of new radiation biomarkers. In association with multivariate statistics, proteomics enables measurement of the level of hundreds or thousands of proteins at the same time and identifies set of proteins that can discriminate between different groups of individuals. Human serum and plasma are the preferred samples for the study of normal and disease-associated proteins. Extreme complexity, extensive dynamic range, genetic and physiological variations, protein modifications and incompleteness of sampling by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry represent key challenges to reproducible, high-resolution, and high-throughput analyses of serum and plasma proteomes. The future of radiation research will possibly lie in molecular networks that link genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome variations to radiation pathophysiology and serve as sensors of radiation disease. This chapter reviews recent advances in proteome analysis of serum and plasma as well as its applications to radiation biology and radiation biomarker discovery for both radiation exposure and radiation tissue toxicity.