Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety
The French Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire is a public official establishment with an industrial and commercial aspect created by the AFSSE Act and by the February 22, 2002 decreed n°2002-254. The IRSN is placed under the conjoint authority of the Defence minister, the Environmental minister, the Industry minister and the Health and Research minister.The IRSN gathers more than 1 500 experts and researchers from the Institut de protection et de sûreté nucléaire and the Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants . These scientists are thus competent on nuclear safety, radioactive protection and control of nuclear and sensitive materials.The IRSN realize investigations, expertise assessements and studies on the fields of nuclear safety, protection against ionizing radiation, protection and control of nuclear material, and protection against voluntary ill-advised acts.IRSN officers are armed with the American made Smith & Wesson M&P9 pistol. Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: COFUND-EJP | Phase: NFRP-07-2015 | Award Amount: 29.25M | Year: 2015
The proposed European Concerted Programme on Radiation Protection Research (acronym: CONCERT) aims to contribute to the sustainable integration of European and national research programmes in radiation protection. It will do so by focusing resources and efforts in five key directions: Bring together the elements of the European scientific communities in the fields of radiation effects and risks, radioecology, nuclear emergency preparedness, dosimetry and medical radiation protection, whose joint expertise is essential to continue the development of radiation protection knowledge in a multidisciplinary mode to reduce further the uncertainties in radiation protection. Strengthen integrative activities between the various areas of expertise, in particular biology, biophysics, epidemiology, dosimetry and modelling as well as fostering the use of existing infrastructures and education and training activities in radiation protection. Stimulate and foster scientific excellence, by setting up and co-funding advanced research programmes with the potential to enhance current knowledge and the scientific evidence base for radiation protection. Exchange and communicate with all stakeholders, including the professional organizations concerned with radiation protection, the regulatory organizations across Europe, the public and media where necessary, and the international community of scientific, technical, legal and other professional experts in radiation protection. Foster the harmonious application of available scientific basis for radiation protection practices across Europe, by bringing together scientific and technical expertise in radiation protection issues, standard setting know how, particularly with respect to the implementation of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) at the legal, administrative and operational level. To reach its goals, CONCERT will have seven Work Packages each of which will focus on each of the key directions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 13.89M | Year: 2015
The overall aim of the SOTERIA project is to improve the understanding of the ageing phenomena occurring in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and in the internal steels (internals) in order to provide crucial information to regulators and operators to ensure safe long-term operation (LTO) of existing European nuclear power plants (NPPs). SOTERIA has set up a collaborative research consortium which gathers the main European research centres and industrial partners who will combine advanced modelling tools with the exploitation of experimental data to focus on four technical objectives: i) to carry out experiments aiming to explore flux and fluence effects on RPV and internals in pressurised water reactors, ii) to assess the residual lifetime of RPV taking into account metallurgical heterogeneities, iii) to assess the effect of the chemical and radiation environment on cracking in internals and iv) to develop modelling tools and provide a single platform integrating developed modelling tools and experimental data for reassessment of structural components during NPPs lifetime. Building on industry-specific key questions and material, SOTERIA will fill current gaps in safety assessment related to ageing phenomena, by providing a set of modelling tools directly applicable in an industrial environment. Guidelines for better use of modelling, material testing reactors and surveillance data will also be an output of paramount importance. Another important parallel objective is the education of the nuclear engineering and research community of SOTERIA results to improve and harmonise knowledge about NPPs ageing and thereby ensure a high impact of project results. The knowledge and tools generated in SOTERIA will contribute to improving EU nuclear safety policy, to increasing the leadership of the EU in safety related equipment and information and to contribute to improved NPP safety world-wide. The SOTERIA proposal received the NUGENIA label on 10 August 2014.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-02-2014 | Award Amount: 4.57M | Year: 2015
When dealing with emergency, two issues with fully different time requirements and operational objectives, and thus different methods and tools, have to be considered: emergency preparedness and emergency response. This project will address both issues by combining the efforts of organizations active in these two areas to make already identified deterministic reference tools and methods a decisive step toward. In particular capabilities of these methods and tools will be extended to tackle main categories of accident scenarios in main types of operating or foreseen water-cooled NPPs in Europe, including Spent Fuel Pools. A first task will be the identification of these categories of scenario, the proposition of a methodology for their description and the development of a database of scenarios. Building this database will constitute a first important step in the harmonisation goal defended in this project. Promising probabilistic approaches based on Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are currently developed to complement operational deterministic methodologies and tools by contributing to diagnosis accidental situations. The development of the methodologies will be pursued in this project with the extension of the existing deterministic ones to European reactors. Both approaches will be assessed against the above mentioned database of scenarios. Finally a comprehensive set of emergency exercises will be developed and proposed to be run by a large set of partners. A first series of exercises will address source term evaluations that will be compared to the reference source terms from the scenarios database. Then a second series of exercises will be proposed on the same scenarios that will be used for the first series but accounting for the main emergency objective : to protect the populations. Progresses made by the methods and tools developed within this project will be notably assessed by comparing the results obtained in these two series of exercises.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 6.64M | Year: 2015
The thermal-hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of Metal cooled reactor (SESAME) project supports the development of European liquid metal cooled reactors (ASTRID, ALFRED, MYRRHA, SEALER). The project focusses on pre-normative, fundamental, safety-related, challenges for these reactors with the following objectives: Development and validation of advanced numerical approaches for the design and safety evaluation of advanced reactors; Achievement of a new or extended validation base by creation of new reference data; Establishment of best practice guidelines, Verification & Validation methodologies, and uncertainty quantification methods for liquid metal fast reactor thermal hydraulics. The SESAME project will improve the safety of liquid metal fast reactors by making available new safety related experimental results and improved numerical approaches. These will allow system designers to improve the safety relevant equipment leading to enhanced safety standards and culture. Due to the fundamental and generic nature of SESAME, developments will be of relevance also for the safety assessment of contemporary light water reactors. By extending the knowledge basis, SESAME will allow the EU member states to develop robust safety policies. At the same time, SESAME will maintain and further develop the European experimental facilities and numerical tools. The consortium of 25 partners provides American-European-wide scientific and technological excellence in liquid metal thermal hydraulics, as well as full alignment with ESNII and with NUGENIA where of interest. A close interaction with the European liquid metal cooled reactor design teams is foreseen involving them in the Senior Advisory Committee. They will actively advise on the content of the project and will be the prime end-users, ensuring their innovative reactor designs will reach highest safety standards using frontier scientific developments.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DRS-03-2015 | Award Amount: 21.10M | Year: 2016
Effective EU support to a large external crisis requires new approaches. In response to this challenge and to identified user and market needs from previous projects, Reaching Out proposes an innovative multi-disciplinary approach that will optimize the efforts, address a wide spectrum of users and maximize market innovation success. This approach results in five main objectives: to 1. Develop a Collaborative Framework, with distributed platforms of functional services, 2. Implement a flexible and open collaborative innovation process involving users and SMEs, suppliers, operators and research organisations, 3. Develop, upgrade and integrate 78 new connectable and interoperable tools, 4. Conduct 5 large scale demonstrations on the field: o health disaster in Africa (Epidemics in Guinea, with strong social and cultural issues), o natural disaster in a politically complex region and a desert environment (Earthquake in the Jordan Valley, led jointly by Jordan, Israel and Palestine), o three global change disasters in Asia targeted at large evacuation and humanitarian support in Bangladesh (long lasting floods, huge storms and associated epidemics,), EU citizen support and repatriation in Shanghai (floods & storm surge), radiological and industrial disasters impacting EU assets in Taiwan (flash floods, landslides, storm surge and chemical and radiological disasters), supported and co-funded by local authorities, 5. Provide recommendations and evaluations for future legal and policy innovations. The project will be conducted under the supervision of senior end-users. It will be performed with flexible and proven procedures by a balanced consortium of users, industry, innovative SMEs, RTO and academia in the EU and the demonstration regions. The main expected impact is to improve external disaster and crisis management efficiency and cost-benefit and increase the EU visibility whilst enhancing EU industry competitiveness and enlarging the market.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 9.66M | Year: 2015
The Modern2020 project aims at providing the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme, taking into account the requirements of specific national programmes. The work allows advanced national radioactive waste disposal programmes to design monitoring systems suitable for deployment when repositories start operating in the next decade and supports less developed programmes and other stakeholders by illustrating how the national context can be taken into account in designing dedicated monitoring programmes tailored to their national needs. The work is established to understand what should be monitored within the frame of the wider safety cases and to provide methodology on how monitoring information can be used to support decision making and to plan for responding to monitoring results. Research and development work aims to improve and develop innovative repository monitoring techniques (wireless data transmission, alternative power supply sources, new sensors, geophysical methods) from the proof of feasibility stage to the technology development and demonstration phase. Innovative technical solutions facilitate the integration and flexibility of required monitoring components to ease the final implementation and adaptation of the monitoring system. Full-scale in-situ demonstrations of innovative monitoring techniques will further enhance the knowledge on the operational implementation of specific disposal monitoring and will demonstrate the performance of the state-of-the-art, the innovative techniques and their comparison with conventional ones. Finally, Modern2020 has the ambition to effectively engage local citizen stakeholders in the R&D monitoring activity by involving them at an early stage in a repository development programme in order to integrate their concerns and expectations into monitoring programmes.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 6.14M | Year: 2015
INCEFA-PLUS delivers new experimental data and new guidelines for assessment of environmental fatigue damage to ensure safe operation of European nuclear power plants. Austenitic stainless steels will be tested for the effects of mean strain, hold time and material roughness on fatigue endurance. Testing will be in nuclear Light Water Reactor environments. The three experimental parameters were selected in the framework of an in-kind project during which the current state of the art for this technical area was developed. The data obtained will be collected and standardised in an online fatigue database with the objective of organising a CEN workshop on this aspect. The gaps in available fatigue data lead to uncertainty in current assessments. The gaps, will be targeted so that fatigue assessment procedures can address behaviour under conditions closer to normal plant operation than is currently possible. Increased safety can thus be assured. INCEFA-PLUS also develops and disseminates a modified procedure for estimating environmental fatigue degradation. This will take better account of the effects of mean strain, hold time and surface finish. This will enable better management of nuclear components, making possible the long term operation (LTO) of NPPs under safer conditions. INCEFA-PLUS is relevant to the NFRP1-2014 programme because: Present guidance originates from NRC. In Europe various national programmes aim to develop counter proposals allowing greater operational efficiency with at least comparable safety assurance. INCEFA-PLUS brings these programmes together through which a strong EU response to the NRC methodology will be obtained with improved safety assurance through increased lifetime assessment reliability. INCEFA-PLUS improves comparability of data from EU programmes because partner laboratories will do some tests on a common material under common conditions. Reduced assessment uncertainty will enable easier maintenance of safety
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 5.95M | Year: 2015
The HORIZON 2020 EURATOM Collaborative Project Cement-based materials, properties, evolution, barrier functions (Cebama) is developed with the overall objective to support implementation of geological disposal of nuclear waste by improving the knowledge base for the Safety Case. Cement-based materials are highly relevant in this context, being used as waste forms, liners and structural components or sealing materials in different types of host rocks and disposal concepts. Specific objectives of Cebama are (i) experimental studies of interface processes between cement based materials and host rocks or bentonite, and assessing the specific impact on transport properties, (ii) quantifying radionuclide retention under high pH cement conditions, and (iii) developing comprehensive modeling approaches. Modeling will support interpretation of results and prediction of the long-term evolution of key transport characteristics such as porosity, permeability and diffusion parameters especially in the interface between cement based materials and the engineered and natural barriers. Further objectives cover dissemination of results to scientific and non-scientific stakeholders as well as training and education of young professionals for carrying over the expertise into future implementation programms. To a large extent, the experimental and modelling work will be part of PhD theses, aiming at high scientific-technical impact and quality with respect to peer-reviewed publications. The 4 years project is implemented by a consortium of 27 partners consisting of large Research Institutions, Universities, one TSO and one SME from 9 EURATOM Signatory States, Switzerland and Japan. National Waste Management Organizations support Cebama by co-developing the work plan, participation in the End-User Group, granting co-funding to some beneficiaries, and providing for knowledge and information transfer.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-01-2014 | Award Amount: 8.21M | Year: 2015
The stabilization of molten corium is recognised as essential if a safe and stable state is to be reached following a severe accident. Among the possible options, In-Vessel Melt Retention (IVMR) appears as an attractive solution that would minimize the risks of containment failure (less Hydrogen produced, no corium-concrete interaction), if it can be proved to be feasible. The strategy is already adopted for the VVER 440 type 213 based on thorough research work for the Finnish Loviisa NPP and Hungarian Paks NPP. It is also included in the design of some new Gen.III reactors like AP-1000, APR 1400 and Chinese CPR-1000. It has also been studied in the past for other reactor concepts like KERENA (BWR) or VVER-640. Current approaches for reactors with relatively small power, such as VVER 440 or AP600, use conservative assumptions. However, for higher power reactors (around 1000 MWe), it is necessary to evaluate the IVMR strategy with best-estimate methods in order to address the uncertainties associated with the involved phenomena. Additional R&D is needed to ensure and demonstrate adequate safety margins, including identification of efficient technical solutions for the external cooling of the vessel and performing best-estimate evaluation of relevant scenarios. Among other provisions, the possibility of cooling the corium inside the vessel by direct injection of water into the degraded core, may be considered because it is likely to remove a significant part of the residual power. The goal of the project is an analysis of the applicability and technical feasibility of the IVMR strategy to high power reactors, both for existing ones (e.g. VVER 1000 type 320 units) as well as for future reactors of different types (PWR or BWR). The main outcomes of the project will be elevant assumptions and scenarios to estimate the maximum heat load on the vessel wall, improved numerical tools for the analysis of IVMR issues and a harmonized methodology on the IVMR.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-03-2014 | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2015
Imagine an inherently safe reactor that produces all electricity world-wide for thousands of years, and recycles all actinides until fission. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) can reach this goal. The cylindrical reactor core contains actinide-fluorides mixed in lithium-fluoride. The liquid salt is at ambient pressure and can freely expand upon heating, giving a strong negative reactivity feedback. The core is in its most reactive state and any geometrical change lead to lower reactivity. In case of hypothetical accidents, the fuel salt will automatically be drained via freeze plugs into fail-safe tanks. The fuel salt is continuously cleaned and controlled in an integrated chemical plant. The MSFR can operate as a breeder reactor in the thorium fuel cycle or as a burner reactor fuelled with plutonium and minor actinides. In short: the MSFR excels in safety, sustainability and optimal waste management. Within SAMOFAR we will perform advanced experiments to proof the key safety features: The freeze plug and draining of the fuel salt Measurement of safety-related data of the fuel salt New coatings to structural materials like Ni-based alloys The dynamics of natural circulation of (internally heated) fuel salts The reductive processes to extract lanthanides and actinides from the fuel salt Furthermore, we will build a software simulator to demonstrate the operational transients, and we will show the mild responses of the MSFR to transients and accident scenarios, using new leading-edge multi-physics simulation tools including uncertainty quantification. All experimental and numerical results will be incorporated into the new reactor design, which will be subjected to a new integral safety assessment method. The goal of SAMOFAR is to deliver indisputable evidence of the excellent safety features of the MSFR, and to enable a consortium of important stakeholders like TSOs and industry, to advance with the MSFR up to the Demonstration phase.