Sahlqvist S.L.,Institute for Public Health |
Sahlqvist S.L.,Deakin University |
Heesch K.C.,Queensland University of Technology
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2012
Background: Initiatives to promote utility cycling in countries like Australia and the US, which have low rates of utility cycling, may be more effective if they first target recreational cyclists. This study aimed to describe patterns of utility cycling and examine its correlates, among cyclists in Queensland, Australia. Methods: An online survey was administered to adult members of a state-based cycling community and advocacy group (n = 1813). The survey asked about demographic characteristics and cycling behavior, motivators and constraints. Utility cycling patterns were described, and logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between utility cycling and other variables. Results: Forty-seven percent of respondents reported utility cycling: most did so to commute (86%). Most journeys (83%) were > 5 km. Being male, younger, employed full-time, or university-educated increased the likelihood of utility cycling (P < .05). Perceiving cycling to be a cheap or a convenient form of transport was associated with utility cycling (P < .05). Conclusions: The moderate rate of utility cycling among recreational cyclists highlights a potential to promote utility cycling among this group. To increase utility cycling, strategies should target female and older recreational cyclists and focus on making cycling a cheap and convenient mode of transport. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Tee T.G.,Institute for Public Health |
Hairi N.N.,University of Malaya |
Hairi F.,University of Malaya
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2012
Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. © 2012 The Union.
Rafiza S.,Institute for Medical Research |
Rampal K.G.,National University of Malaysia |
Tahir A.,Institute for Public Health
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
Background: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.Results: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.Conclusion: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor. © 2011 Rafiza et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Wason J.M.S.,Institute for Public Health |
Dudbridge F.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012
Two-stage analyses of genome-wide association studies have been proposed as a means to improving power for designs including family-based association and gene-environment interaction testing. In these analyses, all markers are first screened via a statistic that may not be robust to an underlying assumption, and the markers thus selected are then analyzed in a second stage with a test that is independent from the first stage and is robust to the assumption in question. We give a general formulation of two-stage designs and show how one can use this formulation both to derive existing methods and to improve upon them, opening up a range of possible further applications. We show how using simple regression models in conjunction with external data such as average trait values can improve the power of genome-wide association studies. We focus on case-control studies and show how it is possible to use allele frequencies derived from an external reference to derive a powerful two-stage analysis. An illustration involving the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium data shows several genome-wide-significant associations, subsequently validated, that were not significant in the standard analysis. We give some analytic properties of the methods and discuss some underlying principles. © 2012 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.
Cheah Y.K.,University of Malaya |
Naidu B.M.,Institute for Public Health
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012
Objective: The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Method: Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Results: Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. Conclusion: In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.