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Maor E.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Maor E.,Leviev Heart Center | Kopel E.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Sidi Y.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Attenuated heart rate (HR) response during exercise is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome. The acceptable value for HR response is 85% of the age-predicted maximal HR (APMHR). This study hypothesized that mild attenuation of HR response during exercise among healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study population comprised 10,323 healthy men and women without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus who underwent a yearly screening program and were followed up during a mean period of 4.3 years. Participants were grouped to 3 tertiles based on the percentage of their APMHR reached at the baseline stress test. The primary end point was the occurrence of CVD or cerebrovascular disease. A total of 1,015 incident cases of CVD occurred during follow-up. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the CVD risk of subjects who reached 60% to 96% of their APMHR was 35% greater compared with those who reached their APMHR (p = 0.001). A subgroup analysis among subjects who reached 85% of their APMHR showed that even mildly attenuated heart response (in the range of 85% to 96% APMHR) was independently associated with 36% increase in CVD risk (p <0.001). In conclusion, attenuated HR response during exercise is a powerful and independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up among healthy men and women. The prognostic implications of attenuated HR response in this population are apparent even with a minor decrease of the maximal HR to <96% of the APMHR. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kivity S.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Kivity S.,Tel Aviv University | Kopel E.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Maor E.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Studies in different populations with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have shown an association between serum uric acid (SUA) and CVD. However, only a few studies have demonstrated such an association in healthy populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and CVD in a cohort of men and women without diabetes or CVD. A retrospective study was conducted, with a mean 4.8-year follow-up. The outcome was the occurrence of a cardiovascular event, defined as the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Mean SUA levels were 6.2 ± 1.1 mg/dl for men (n = 6,580) and 4.4 ± 1.1 mg/dl for women (n = 2,559). For women, the rate of CVD occurrence was 11.6% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 5.0% to 6.5% for the lower 3 quartiles. For men, the rate of CVD occurrence was 14.0% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 10.8% for the lowest quartile. The hazard ratio for CVD, adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, plasma fasting glucose, physical activity, cardiovascular family history, use of diuretics, and current smoking, was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.41) for women and 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.13) for men (p for interaction = 0.04). In conclusion, the strong association of SUA levels with CVD in women, compared with the much lesser degree in men, highlights the necessity of stratifying by gender in investigations of cardiovascular risk factors and supports exploration of SUA as a marker of CVD risk in healthy populations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hirvonen J.,University of Helsinki | Rajalin A.-M.,University of Helsinki | Wohlfahrt G.,Orion Pharma | Adlercreutz H.,Institute for Preventive Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is an orphan nuclear receptor lacking identified natural ligands. The synthetic estrogen receptor ligands 4-hydroxytamoxifen and diethylstilbestrol have, however, been shown to bind to and abolish the constitutive transcriptional activity of ERRγ. Certain phytoestrogens were recently reported to act as agonists of the related ERRα. We investigated whether phytoestrogens also modulated the transcriptional activity of ERRγ. We analyzed a selection of phytoestrogens for their potential agonistic or antagonistic activity on ERRγ. In transiently transfected PC-3 and U2-OS cells equol stimulated the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and enhanced its interaction with the coactivator GRIP1. The agonistic effect of equol was abolished by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Equol induced a conformational change in the ERRγ ligand-binding domain. Based on structural models of the ERRγ ligand-binding domain, we were able to introduce mutations that modulated the agonistic potential of equol. Finally, equol enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of ERRγ on the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the phytoestrogen equol acts as an ERRγ agonist. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Kivity S.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Kivity S.,Tel Aviv University | Kopel E.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | Steinlauf S.,Chaim Sheba Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2013

Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels and incident diabetes. Most clinical and epidemiological investigations, however, focused solely on male populations or did not analyze men and women separately. We assessed the association between SUA levels and diabetes incidence in a large cohort of apparently healthy men and women. Methods: Data were retrospectively gathered from 9140 adults who participated in annual medical screening visits during 2000-2009. Mean follow-up time was 4.8 years, and the median age was 50 years. Laboratory test results, data from physical examinations, medical history, and lifestyle information were extracted. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes, defined as two consecutive fasting glucose tests higher than 125 mg/dL. Cox proportional-hazards multivariate models were applied for measuring hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes according to continuous and categorical levels of uric acid. Results: We identified 499 new cases of diabetes (total, 5.5%: men, 6.2%; women, 3.6%) during the follow-up period. The gender-specific HRs for diabetes, adjusted for age and a set of prespecified multiple risk and protective factors, were 1.57 for each 1 mg/dL increase in SUA (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.86) in women and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.99-1.17) in men; p for interaction of SUA by gender <0.001. Conclusion: SUA is independently associated with diabetes outcome, considerably more in women than in men. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jukic T.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Rojc B.,Izola Hospital | Boben-Bardutzky D.,Vojnik Psyhiatric Hospital | Hafner M.,Institute for Preventive Medicine | Ihan A.,University of Ljubljana
Collegium Antropologicum | Year: 2011

We described the use of a food supplementation with D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan in the alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms in pateints starting a detoxification terapy. Since abstinence from ethanol causes a hypodopaminergic and a hypoopioidergic environment in the reword system circuits, manifesting with withdrawal symptoms, food supplements that contains D-phenylalanine a peptidase inhibitor (of opioide inactivation) and L-amino-acids (for dopamine synthesis) were used to replenish a lack in neurotransmitters and alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. 20 patienets suffering from alcohol addictions starting a detoxification therapy have been included in a prospective, randomized, double blind study. The patients have been randomly devided in two groups. One group recieved for a period of 40 days a food supplement containing D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan (investigation group), and the control (placebo) group. On the first day of hospitalization the patients performed a SCL-90-R test, and blood samples were taken for measuring liver enzymes, total bilirubin, unbound cortisol and lymphocyte populations. The same was done on the 40 th day of hospitalization. During the therapy a significant decrease in SCL-90-R psychiatric symptoms scores and a significant increase in CD4 lymphocyte count was observed in the investigation group. The cortisol values were significantly, but equally decreased in both groups, the same was with the liver enzymes and the total bilirubin values.We conclude that abstinence causes a major stress for the patients. The use of food supplement containing D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan alleviates the withdrawal symptoms and causes a rise in CD4 lymphocyte population, but it dose not affect the serum cortisol levels, which are probably more affected by liver inflammation and the liver restitution.

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