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Lang T.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Lang T.,University of Tubingen | Justenhoven C.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Justenhoven C.,University of Tubingen | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Genetic polymorphisms of human ABC-transporter genes have been suggested to modulate breast cancer risk in the general population. In particular ABCC11 (MRP8), which is highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and involved in the efflux of conjugated estrogen metabolites such as estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17beta-glucuronide, has recently been proposed as a potential risk factor for female breast cancer. The wet earwax-associated G-allele of the c.538G>A polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer in Japanese women. In contrast, no evidence for such an association could be observed in Caucasian women. We aimed to confirm/refute the association of the c.538G>A variant in ABCC11 with breast cancer risk and/or histo-pathological tumor characteristics in an independent population-based breast cancer case-control study from Germany comprising 1021 cases and 1015 age-matched controls. No association for allele and genotype frequencies of the 538G>A variant in ABCB11 with breast cancer risk was found. Our data suggest that the c.538G>A variation in ABCC11 does not contribute to breast carcinogenesis in women of European descent. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Justenhoven C.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Justenhoven C.,University of Tubingen | Schaeffeler E.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Schaeffeler E.,University of Tubingen | And 14 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Organic anion transporter polypeptides (OATPs, SLCOs) are involved in the uptake of conjugates steroid hormones such as estrone-3-sulfate. It has been suggested that the expression of OATPs in breast tissues could impact breast carcinogenesis and tumor pathology. The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is involved in the regulation of SLCO1A2 expression. We investigated 31 variants located in PXR, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 for an association with breast cancer risk and/or histo-pathological tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms were selected on the basis of a known or potential functional consequence and an allele frequency >2%. Genotyping was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using the GENICA population-based breast cancer case-control collection comprising 1,021 cases and 1,015 age-matched controls. Statistical analysis was performed by SAS, and all tests were two-sided. None of the 31 analyzed transporter and PXR polymorphisms showed an association with breast cancer risk or tumor characteristics. Our data suggest that among the many known transporters common variations of PXR, SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 do not contribute to breast carcinogenesis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bruning T.,Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance IPA | Bartsch R.,TU Munich | Bolt H.M.,TU Dortmund | Desel H.,University of Gottingen | And 13 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2014

There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory NOAEChuman" can be derived. In contrast, inhalation studies with rodents investigate the second pathway that yields an "irritative NOAECanimal." Usually the data for both pathways is not available and extrapolation across species is necessary. Part 3 comprises an empirical approach for the derivation of a default factor for interspecies differences. Therefore, from those substances under discussion in German scientific and regulatory bodies, 19 substances were identified known to be human irritants with available human and animal data. The evaluation started with three substances: ethyl acrylate, formaldehyde, and methyl methacrylate. For these substances, appropriate chronic animal and a controlled human exposure studies were available. The comparison of the sensory NOAEChuman with the irritative NOAECanimal (chronic) resulted in an interspecies extrapolation factor (iEF) of 3 for extrapolating animal data concerning local sensory irritating effects. The adequacy of this iEF was confirmed by its application to additional substances with lower data density (acetaldehyde, ammonia, n-butyl acetate, hydrogen sulfide, and 2-ethylhexanol). Thus, extrapolating from animal studies, an iEF of 3 should be applied for local sensory irritants without reliable human data, unless individual data argue for a substance-specific approach. © 2014 The Author(s).

Milne R.L.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Lorenzo-Bermejo J.,University of Heidelberg | Lorenzo-Bermejo J.,German Cancer Research Center | Burwinkel B.,German Cancer Research Center | And 86 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case-control studies. Methods The authors genotyped 14 843 invasive case patients and 19 852 control subjects with white European ancestry and 2595 invasive case patients and 2192 control subjects with Asian ancestry. ORs were estimated by logistic regression, adjusted for study. Heterogeneity in ORs was assessed by fitting interaction terms or by subclassifying case patients and applying polytomous logistic regression. Results For white European women, the minor T allele of 7q21-rs6964587 was associated with breast cancer risk under a recessive model (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13, p=0.04). Results were inconclusive for Asian women. From a combined analysis of 24 154 case patients and 33 376 control subjects of white European ancestry from the present and previous series, the best-fitting model was recessive, with an estimated OR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.13, p=0.001). The OR was greater at younger ages (p trend=0.01). Conclusion This may be the first common susceptibility allele for breast cancer to be identified with a recessive mode of inheritance.

Milne R.L.,Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group | Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | Spurdle A.B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Fasching P.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 97 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods: We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects.Results: These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar.Conclusions: The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified. © 2010 Milne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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