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Tawfic M.L.,National Research Center of Egypt | Elsabbagh A.M.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering | Elsabbagh A.M.,Ain Shams University | Ziegmann G.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering
International Journal of Plastics Technology | Year: 2014

Impregnation of natural fabric with polymeric materials finds wide range of industrial applications. The challenge here is to use wastes to be recycled into useful things. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) was used as the target polymer for impregnation of natural fabrics (jute). Maleic anhydride and abietic acid reacted together to give adduct via Diels Alder reaction. Investigation of the produced maleoabietic adduct was established using Fourier transform infrrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). Expanded polystyrene waste was grafted with the adduct and the product was investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and (DSC). The tensile strength and consequently the adhesion performance between the grafted polystyrene and the jute fabrics were increased upon using maleoabietic as coupling agent. The tensile strength showed abrupt change up to 441 MPa upon using 12 phr maleoabietic. © 2014, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology. Source


El-Sabbagh A.M.M.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering | El-Sabbagh A.M.M.,Ain Shams University | Steuernagel L.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering | Meiners D.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering | Ziegmann G.,Institute for Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

Illusions and facts about aspect ratio and the corresponding mechanical properties of the polypropylene flax are studied in this work. Selection of extruder elements controls significantly the fiber final dimensions. Hence, the load transfer efficiency can be improved. Different extruder layouts are tried. First and second trials investigate the mixing degree effect using kneading elements with eight and four kneading elements, respectively. The third and fourth trials keep four kneading blocks but differentiate in using multiprocessing element MPE and toothed elements, respectively. All the four configurations are tested at different shearing rates namely 100, 200, and 300 rpm and different fiber loadings 10, 20, and 30 wt %. Polypropylene (PP) with high flowing properties and slivers flax natural fibers are used. The output extruded strands are mechanically tested. The third and fourth configurations showed superiority to the normal kneading profiles regarding the mechanical properties. Samples of composites are withdrawn after each processing extruder element to study the effect of this element on the fiber dimension. Measurement of extracted fibers is carried out by two methods namely dynamic image analysis machine and secondly normal microscopic investigation. Weibull distributions are defined for fiber geometry distributions for the different locations on the extruder configuration. Also, the effect of the shear rate and the extruder configuration on the final dimensions of the fibers extracted from the composite. The results show the correlation between extruder configuration and fiber aspect ratio and hence the composite overall strength. However, further processing like injection molding erases the pre-extrusion effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Blanco I.,University of Catania | Cicala G.,University of Catania | Latteri A.,University of Catania | Saccullo G.,University of Catania | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2016

Polypropylene (PP), due to its chemical stability, is considered one of the main responsible of the increasing amount of plastic wastes on earth. To overcome this problem and to reduce the dependence of oil feedstocks, the use of lignocellulosics as fillers or reinforcements in thermoplastic materials has been increasing enormously in the last decades. In the present work, Liquid Wood (a mixture of cellulose, hemp, fax and lignin) was used to prepare, by mechanical mixing followed by thermal extrusion, blends of various PP/Liquid Wood ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis experiments were performed in order to verify whether and how much the composition of the blends affects the thermal properties of the obtained compounds. Both calorimetric and thermogravimetric results indicate that the application of PP as a matrix does not limit the processing temperature of Liquid Wood, which may lead to a perfect marketable composite from these components. The addition of Liquid Wood also resulted in enhanced mechanical properties for the PP/Liquid Wood blends. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary Source

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