Institute for Plant Protection and Environment

Belgrade, Serbia

Institute for Plant Protection and Environment

Belgrade, Serbia
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Petrovic A.,University of Belgrade | Mitrovic M.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Stary P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Petrovic-Obradovic O.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

We report the occurrence of Lysiphlebus orientalis in Serbia, an aphid parasitoid from the Far East that is new to Europe and has the potential to become invasive. Our finding based on morphological characters is confirmed by analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. An increase in number and an expansion of the host range were observed during field studies over the past two years, and it is determined that the current host range encompasses nine aphid hosts on 12 different host plants, forming 13 tri-trophic associations. A host range determined for European populations of L. orientalis appears wider compared with that in its Far Eastern native habitats where Aphis glycines Mats. is the sole known host. Moreover, it overlaps considerably with the host ranges of European parasitoids that play an important role in the natural control of pest aphids. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.


Tosevski I.,CABI Europe Switzerland | Tosevski I.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Jovic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Hernandez-Vera G.,University of East Anglia | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2011

A combined morphological, molecular and biological study shows that the weevil species presently named Mecinus janthinus is actually composed of two different cryptic species: M. janthinus Germar, 1821 and M. janthiniformis Toševski & Caldara sp.n. These species are morphologically distinguishable from each other by a few very subtle morphological characters. On the contrary, they are more readily distinguishable by both molecular and biological characters. A molecular assessment based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene revealed fixed differences between the two species with p-distances between samples of both species ranging from 1.3 to 2.4%. In addition to this, the larvae of the two species are found to develop on different species within the genus Linaria (Plantaginaceae): M. janthinus is associated with yellow toadflax (L. vulgaris) and M. janthiniformis with broomleaf toadflax (L. genistifolia) and Dalmatian toadflax (L. dalmatica). Molecular and host use records further suggest the occurrence of a third species associated with L. vulgaris within M. janthinus, sampled from north Switzerland, central Hungary and east Serbia. The significance of these new findings is of particular importance because species of the M. janthinus group are used, or are potential candidates, for the biological control of invasive toadflaxes in North America. © 2011 The Authors. Systematic Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.


Tosevski I.,CABI Inc | Jovic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Baviera C.,Messina University | Hernandez-Vera G.,University of East Anglia | And 2 more authors.
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2014

A combined taxonomic, morphological, molecular and biological study revealed that the species presently named Mecinus heydenii is actually composed of five different species: M. heydenii Wencker, 1866; M. raphaelis Baviera & Caldara sp. n., M. laeviceps Tournier, 1873; M. peterharrisi Toševski & Caldara sp. n. and M. bulgaricus Angelov, 1971. These species can be distinguished from each other by a few subtle characteristics, mainly in the shape of the rostrum and body of the penis, and the colour of the integument. The first four species live on different species of Linaria plants, respectively, L. vulgaris (L.) P. Mill., L. purpurea (L.) P. Mill. L. genistifolia (L.) P. Mill. and L. dalmatica (L.) P. Mill., whereas the host plant of M. bulgaricus is still unknown. An analysis of mtCOII gene sequence data revealed high genetic divergence among these species, with uncorrected pairwise distances of 9% between M. heydenii and M. raphaelis, 11.5% between M. laeviceps, M. heydenii and M. raphaelis, while M. laeviceps and M. peterharrisi are approximately 6.3% divergent from each other. Mecinus bulgaricus exhibits even greater divergence from all these species and is more closely related to M. dorsalis Aubé, 1850. Sampled populations of M. laeviceps form three geographical subspecies: M. laeviceps laeviceps, M. laeviceps meridionalis Toševski & Jović and M. laeviceps corifoliae Toševski & Jović. These subspecies show clear genetic clustering with uncorrected mtDNA COII divergences of approximately 1.4% from each other. © 2013 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.


Hernandez-Vera G.,University of East Anglia | Mitrovic M.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Jovic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Tosevski I.,CABI Europe | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent larval development. In the case of plant feeding insects that also require plant tissues for the completion of their reproductive cycle through larval development, the divergent selective pressure not only acts on adults, but on the full life history of the insect. Here we focus attention on Rhinusa antirrhini (Curculionidae), a species of weevil broadly distributed across Europe that both feeds on, and oviposits and develops within, species of the plant genus Linaria (Plantaginaceae). Using a combination of mtDNA (COII) and nuclear DNA (EF1-α) sequencing and copulation experiments we assess evidence for host associated genetic differentiation within R. antirrhini. We find substantial genetic variation within this species that is best explained by ecological specialisation on different host plant taxa. This genetic differentiation is most pronounced in the mtDNA marker, with patterns of genetic variation at the nuclear marker suggesting incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene flow between different host plant forms of R. antirrhini, whose origin is estimated to date to the mid-Pliocene (3.77 Mya; 2.91-4.80 Mya). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Ivanovic Z.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Blagojevic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Popovic T.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Ignjatov M.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (herbaceous peony), a perennial flower, has been grown worldwide in gardens and landscapes (Munoz et al. 2016). Peony plants cv. Sarah Bernard with leaf blight were observed in two home gardens located in Jagodina, central Serbia. Disease severity (percentage diseased leaf area) was nearly 15% and the disease incidence was 70%. Symptoms were characterized as small, brown spots that first appeared on the leaf margin, spreading gradually to the interior of the leaf, forming irregularly shaped spots. Samples of symptomatic leaf tissues collected from diseased plants were immersed in a solution containing 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 s, rinsed with sterilized water, and then cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium at 22°C for 7 days in the dark. In total, 14 isolates were collected. Mycelia were initially white, aerial, and gradually became gray 21 days later. Septate conidiophores were produced in cultures. Conidiophores, sprouted individually or in groups, were straight or flexuous, dendriform near the apex, gray or pale brown colored, and 9.0 to 13.0 × 945 to 2,415 (avg. 11.0 × 1,613) µm. Conidia were ovoid or elliptical, colorless, and 7.0 to 20.0 × 5.0 to 11.0 (avg. 11.5 × 7.4) µm. Numerous sclerotia were produced on PDA plates incubated for 20 days at 8°C. Sclerotia were dark, irregular, gathering as large irregular or globular groups, and measured 1.5 to 5.3 × 1.6 to 5.2 (avg. 3.07 × 2.97) mm. These morphological characteristics identified the fungus as Botrytis cinerea (Ellis and Waller 1974). To confirm identification, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA (amplified by using ITS1/ITS4 primers) and nuclear protein-coding genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2 amplified by using G3PDHf/G3PDHr, HSP60f/HSP60r, and RPB2f/RPB2r primers) of a representative isolate were sequenced. BLAST analysis of the resulting sequences (GenBank accession nos. KU216227, KX867996, KX867997, and KX867998) shared 100% sequence identity for ITS region, 99% sequence identity for G3PDH, and 100% sequence identity for HSP60 and RPB2 with gene sequences of B. cinerea (KP151609, KR055048, KU760985, and CP009818). A pathogenicity test was performed with all 14 isolates. Leaves of healthy, potted, 3-month-old P. lactiflora cv. Sarah Bernard were inoculated with 0.5 cm diameter PDA plugs containing mycelia and conidia and taken from 14-day-old cultures. Ten plants were inoculated with five plugs each and 10 control plants were inoculated with PDA alone. Plants were sprayed with sterilized water and then covered with transparent plastic bags for 5 days after inoculation and maintained in a greenhouse at 20 to 26°C, relative humidity 85%. The first lesions developed on leaves 5 days after inoculation and were similar to those observed on plants infected under natural conditions, whereas control plants were symptomless. The pathogen was successfully reisolated from all inoculated leaves and found to be morphologically identical to the original isolates, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. No pathogens were isolated from control plants. Botrytis blight on P. lactiflora was previously reported in the United States (Daughtery et al. 1995), Iran (Mirzaei et al. 2008), China (Wang et al. 1996), and Chile (Munoz et al. 2016); however, to our knowledge, this is the first report in Serbia. The disease could cause considerable economic losses, and therefore control strategies should be implemented. © 2017, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Elezovic I.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Datta A.,Concord University | Vrbnicanin S.,University of Belgrade | Glamoclija D.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

With an increase in the use of imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant sunflower, it is important to determine the influence of weed interference and herbicide presence on seed yield and yield components of sunflower. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different periods of weed presence on seed yield and yield components of IMI-resistant sunflower grown with and without pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide. Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at three locations in Serbia and one location in Nebraska, USA. A four-parameter log-logistic model described relationship between the crop yield and yield components to increasing duration of weed presence. Sunflower yield and yield components varied between years and among locations. Increasing periods of weed interference decreased yield and yield components of sunflower; however, the reductions were greater without PRE herbicide compared to the PRE herbicide treated plots. The length of time weeds could remain in the crop grown without PRE herbicide ranged from 14 to 26 days after emergence (DAE), which corresponded to the V3 (three leaves) to V4 growth stages on the basis of the 5% acceptable yield loss level. The duration of time that weeds could remain in the crop grown with PRE herbicide ranged from 25 to 37 DAE, which corresponded to the V6-V8 growth stages of sunflower. Practical implication of this study is that post-emergence weed control in IMI-resistant sunflower grown with PRE herbicide can be delayed approximately by two weeks compared to the crop grown without PRE herbicide. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Cvrkovic T.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Jovic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Mitrovic M.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Krstic O.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Tosevski I.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Bois noir (BN) is an economically important grapevine yellows disease induced by the stolbur phytoplasma and principally vectored by the cixiid Hyalesthes obsoletus. This study addresses the involvement of other planthoppers and/or leafhoppers in BN epidemics in the South Banat district of northeastern Serbia, by performing transmission experiments and multilocus typing of stolbur phytoplasma isolates to determine the vector-related characteristics of the disease. Transmission trials were conducted with adults of two cixiid congeners, Reptalus panzeri and R. quinquecostatus, which were found to harbour stolbur phytoplasma in the vineyards under study. A molecular characterization of stolbur phytoplasma isolates was performed by sequence analysis and/or RFLP typing of the two housekeeping genes tuf and secY and the two membrane proteins stamp and vmp1. Transmission trials with naturally infected R. panzeri adults from either the BN-infected vineyards or maize redness (MR)-affected maize fields revealed a high stolbur phytoplasma transmission efficiency to grapevines. In contrast, experiments conducted with stolbur-positive R. quinquecostatus originating from BN-infected vineyards, provided no evidence for a vector role of this species. Seven stolbur phytoplasma genotypes, all of which were tuf-b types, were detected among the grapevine- and insect-associated field samples according to the tuf/secY/vmp1/stamp typing. STOLg was the genotype most frequently found in naturally infected grapevine (42%), as well as R. panzeri originating from the vineyards (85%) and maize fields (98%). The same genotype was found in all experimental plants inoculated by R. panzeri, confirming its vectorship of the disease. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Mitrovic M.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Jovic J.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Cvrkovic T.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | Krstic O.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

A 2-year study of host association, molecular characterisation and vector transmission of a phytoplasma related to the 16SrII group in a vineyard of south-eastern Serbia was conducted. Grapevine, eight common weeds and 31 Auchenorrhyncha species were collected and analysed for phytoplasma presence. PCR-RFLP analyses of the 16S rRNA gene identified the presence of a new strain of phytoplasma related to the 16SrII group in P. hieracioides with symptoms of stunting or bushy stunting. Grapevine samples, all without symptoms, were negative for phytoplasma presence. Plants of Erigeron annuus, Cynodon dactylon, Daucus carota and P. hieracioides, either exhibiting symptoms of yellowing or without symptoms, were positive for the presence of stolbur phytoplasma. Among the tested cicada species, seven were infected with phytoplasmas from the aster yellows group, two with stolbur phytoplasma, two with 16SrII phytoplasma, and one with the 16SrV-C phytoplasma subgroup. The phytoplasma strain of the 16SrII group was recorded in approximately 50 % of the collected leafhopper species Neoaliturus fenestratus and in a few specimens of the planthopper Dictyophara europaea. The vector status of N. fenestratus was tested using the second generation of the planthopper in two separate transmission trials with P. hieracioides and periwinkle seedlings. In both tests, the leafhopper successfully transmitted 16SrII phytoplasma to exposed plants, proving its role as a natural vector of this phytoplasma in Europe. A finer molecular characterisation and phylogenetic relatedness of the 16SrII phytoplasma strain by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein genes rpl22-rps3 indicated that it was most closely related to the 16SrII-E subgroup. © 2012 KNPV.


Kuzmanovic N.,University of Belgrade | Ivanovic M.,University of Belgrade | Prokic A.,University of Belgrade | Gasic K.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Serious outbreaks of grapevine crown gall disease were observed in major Serbian viticultural regions during the last five years. Tumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis was identified as a causal agent by using conventional bacteriological and molecular tests. The 36 studied strains of A. vitis showed homogeneous biochemical and physiological characteristics, but were heterogeneous in their pathogenic properties, especially on tomato and sunflower. Furthermore, genetic differences related to chromosomal and plasmid DNA were observed. The Ti plasmid of 35 strains was classified as the octopine/cucumopine (O/C) type, whereas one was classified as the vitopine (V) type. The O/C strains were further divided into O/C-1 and O/C-2 groups based on PCR analysis. Moreover, the sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region provided robust and precise delineation of studied strains. Although a high level of genetic diversity in A. vitis strains from Serbia was revealed by using this approach, their genotypic relatedness with the strains from other countries suggested their common origin. Also, association between the chromosomal and plasmid DNA was determined for some phylogenetic groups and clusters. © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Gassmann A.,CABI Inc | Tosevski I.,CABI Inc | Tosevski I.,Institute for Plant Protection and Environment
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2014

Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn) is a shrub (or small tree) of Eurasian origin, which has become invasive in North America. Internal feeders and sap suckers were prioritized for biological control from over 30 specialized insects identified from the target plant in its native European range. Five leaf-feeding moths were also considered for further investigations. Field observations and preliminary host range tests with the stem-boring beetle Oberea pedemontana, the root-boring moth Synanthedon stomoxiformis, the shoot-tip-boring moth Sorhagenia janiszewskae and the leaf-feeding moths Ancylis apicella, A. unculana, Triphosa dubitata, Philereme transversata and P. vetulata confirmed that all of these species were lacking host specificity in no-choice conditions. Choice oviposition tests carried out with most of the prioritized species to assess their ecological host range yielded unreliable results. Three psyllids, Trichochermes walkeri, Cacopsylla rhamnicolla and Trioza rhamni are promising in terms of host specificity, but are infected with the plant disease 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni'. Fruit- or seed-feeding insects may present the best potential for biological control of buckthorn in directly reducing seed set and thus seedling establishment. However, it was not possible to obtain adult fruiting trees of native North American Rhamnus species for testing. It is concluded that there are no promising arthropod agents based on what is known to date. Pathogens could offer new opportunities for biological control of R. cathartica in North America. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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