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Renco M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sasanelli N.,Institute for Plant Protection | Papajova I.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Maistrello L.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Helminthologia | Year: 2012

Summary: Recently, tannins have been reported for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica both in vitro and in pot experiments in addition to a biocidal effect on a wide range of fungi, bacteria and yeasts. However, no information is available on the effect of these polyphenols on plant parasitic cyst nematodes. Therefore, an in vitro and a pot experiments on potato were undertaken to investigate the nematicidal activity of tannin aqueous solutions at different concentrations on the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. In the in vitro experiment different tannin concentrations in a geometric scale (from 0. 32 to 20. 48 g/l) were tested for their effect on the egg hatch of the nematode. All tested tannin concentrations were effective to reduce egg viability from 56 to 87%, in comparison to the untreated control. In the pot experiment, tannins, as aqueous solutions at rates of 100, 250 and 450 g/m 2, were applied to soil at two different application times (at sowing and at sowing and two weeks later). All tested doses were effective to reduce the number of cyst/100 g soil, eggs and juveniles/g soil and reproduction rate in comparison to untreated control. The number of eggs and juveniles/cyst was not influenced by the different applied rates of tannins. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Renco M.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Sasanelli N.,Institute for Plant Protection | Kovacik P.,Slovak University of Agriculture
Helminthologia | Year: 2011

Summary: A pot experiment on potato was carried out to verify the nematicidal effect of four composts of different origin (C1: 70 % horse manure + 15 % sugar beet pomace + 5 % poultry manure + 10% grape pomace; C2: 100 % pig manure decomposed by juveniles of Musca domestica; C3: 100 % vermicompost from medical plants wastes; C4: 100% vermicompost from cattle manure) on the potato cyst nematodes G. rostochiensis (Ro1) and G. pallida (Pa2 and Pa3). Composts at different rates (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/w) were mixed with the nematode infested soils. Pots with unamended soils were used as control. Pots (4 l) were arranged in a glasshouse according to a randomized block design with four replications per each treatment. A significant reduction in number of cysts, eggs and juveniles/cyst and eggs and juveniles/g soil was observed in each compost in comparison to unamended soil. The suppressive nematode effect increased according to the compost NH 4 + content and compost rate. © 2011 © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Ivic D.,Institute for Plant Protection
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The effect of 15 Fusarium species on seed germination and early plant development was examined in a laboratory study, together with the potential toxigenicity of selected isolates and the possibility of T-2 toxin production on soybean and pea grain. In germination tests, 33 out of 47 isolates of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. crookwellense, F. verticillioides, F. equiseti, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. poae, F. sambucinum and F. compactum significantly reduced the number of normal soybean seedlings, while only six out of 48 isolates of F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum significantly reduced the number of normal pea seedlings. When inoculated on plants grown in Hoagland’s media, nearly all Fusarium isolates caused necrosis of soybean and pea root, but neither of them significantly reduced shoot and root dry mass of pea plants, or shoot dry mass of soybean plants. Amplification of tri5 and FUM1 genes, required for trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis, was carried out by PCR in 45 Fusarium isolates from soybean and 40 isolates from pea. Positive tri5 PCR reaction was recorded in 19 isolates of F. sporotrichioides, F. crookwellense, F. pseudograminearum, F. poae, F. sambucinum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum. Positive FUM1 PCR reaction was recorded in 35 out of 38 F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum isolates. The content of T-2 toxin produced by eight F. sporotrichioides isolates inoculated on autoclaved soybean, pea and barley grain ranged from 69.4 to 2595.5 μg/kg. No significant differences were determined between T-2 toxin production on soybean and barley grain, nor on pea and barley grain. © 2014, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved Source

Kaemmerer D.,Institute for Plant Protection
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2012

Currently plant infectivity assays (bioassays) seem most reliable to determine viability of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida), but they are time consuming and labour-intensive. Hence, the objective of the present investigation was to establish a reliable and time-saving reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay for determining viability of potato cyst nematodes. Sensitivity of the developed test was very high enabling the detection of the gpd1 mRNA of one untreated second-stage juvenile (J2) in 200 μl of water in 5 out of 10 tested samples. The adopted RT-PCR protocol was used to study the thermo-sensitivity of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida between 35 and 55°C as well as the fate during anaerobic digestion at 38°C. The test proved to be very robust concerning PCR inhibiting factors, mRNA detection of ten untreated J2 in 200 μl of digester substrate was always successful. Results of the RT-PCR assay and the bioassay congruently showed that 4 days of anaerobic digestion were suitable to decontaminate plant material containing cysts of G. rostochiensis or G. pallida. Whereas usefulness of the RT-PCR to estimate the viability of heat treated cysts was limited to long incubation times or temperature treatments above 45°C, because mRNA persisted unexpectedly long at short incubation times or temperature treatments below 45°C. Nevertheless the presented RT-PCR method may be useful for selected applications that require a fast and sensitive determination of the vitality of potato cyst nematodes. © Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart. Source

Scherer R.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Scherer R.,Hannover Medical School | Schaarschmidt F.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Prescher S.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Priesnitz K.U.,Institute for Plant Protection
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2013

Diversity indices might be used to assess the impact of treatments on the relative abundance patterns in species communities. When several treatments are to be compared, simultaneous confidence intervals for the differences of diversity indices between treatments may be used. The simultaneous confidence interval methods described until now are either constructed or validated under the assumption of the multinomial distribution for the abundance counts. Motivated by four example data sets with background in agricultural and marine ecology, we focus on the situation when available replications show that the count data exhibit extra-multinomial variability. Based on simulated overdispersed count data, we compare previously proposed methods assuming multinomial distribution, a method assuming normal distribution for the replicated observations of the diversity indices and three different bootstrap methods to construct simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple differences of Simpson and Shannon diversity indices. The focus of the simulation study is on comparisons to a control group. The severe failure of asymptotic multinomial methods in overdispersed settings is illustrated. Among the bootstrap methods, the widely known Westfall-Young method performs best for the Simpson index, while for the Shannon index, two methods based on stratified bootstrap and summed count data are preferable. The methods application is illustrated for an example. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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