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Schikora M.,Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics | Schikora A.,Institute for Phytopathology and Applied Zoology
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2014

Our growing awareness that contaminated plants, fresh fruits and vegetables are responsible for a significant proportion of food poisoning with pathogenic microorganisms indorses the demand to understand the interactions between plants and human pathogens. Today we understand that those pathogens do not merely survive on or within plants, they actively infect plant organisms by suppressing their immune system. Studies on the infection process and disease development used mainly physiological, genetic, and molecular approaches, and image-based analysis provides yet another method for this toolbox. Employed as an observational tool, it bears the potential for objective and high throughput approaches, and together with other methods it will be very likely a part of data fusion approaches in the near future. © 2014 Schikora, Schikora. Published by Elsevier B.V. Source


Wehrenfennig C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics | Wehrenfennig C.,Institute for Soil Science and Soil Conservation | Schott M.,Institute for Phytopathology and Applied Zoology | Gasch T.,Institute for Phytopathology and Applied Zoology | And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Pheromones and other semiochemicals play an important role in the natural world by influencing the behavior of plants, mammals, and insects. In the latter case, species-dependent pheromone communication has numerous applications, including the detection, trapping, monitoring and guiding of insects, as well as pest management in agriculture. On-site sensors are desirable when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are used as semiochemicals. Insects have evolved highly selective sensors for such compounds, so biosensors comprising complete insects, isolated organs or individual proteins can be highly effective. However, isolated insect organs have a limited lifetime as biosensor, so biomimetic approaches are needed for prolonged monitoring, novel applications, or measurements in challenging environments. We discuss the development of on-site biosensors and biomimetic approaches for airborne-pheromone sensing, together with biomimetic VOC sensor systems. Furthermore, the infochemical effect describing the anthropogenic contamination of the ecosystem through semiochemicals, will be considered in the context of novel on-site pheromone sensing-systems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Zimmermann M.R.,Institute for Phytopathology and Applied Zoology | Hafke J.B.,Institute for General Botany | Van Bel A.J.E.,Institute for General Botany | Furch A.C.U.,Institute for Phytopathology and Applied Zoology
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2013

Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem-sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem-pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH-values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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