Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung

Freising, Germany

Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung

Freising, Germany
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Pin P.A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pin P.A.,Syngenta | Zhang W.,University of Kiel | Zhang W.,Yangtze University | And 24 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Life cycle adaptation to latitudinal and seasonal variation in photoperiod and temperature is a major determinant of evolutionary success in flowering plants. Whereas the life cycle of the dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by two epistatic genes, FLOWERING LOCUS C and FRIGIDA [1-3], three unrelated loci (VERNALIZATION 1-3) determine the spring and winter habits of monocotyledonous plants such as temperate cereals [4-6]. In the core eudicot species Beta vulgaris, whose lineage diverged from that leading to Arabidopsis shortly after the monocot-dicot split 140 million years ago [7, 8], the bolting locus B [9] is a master switch distinguishing annuals from biennials. Here, we isolated B and show that the pseudo-response regulator gene BOLTING TIME CONTROL 1 (BvBTC1), through regulation of the FLOWERING LOCUS T genes [10], is absolutely necessary for flowering and mediates the response to both long days and vernalization. Our results suggest that domestication of beets involved the selection of a rare partial loss-of-function BvBTC1 allele that imparts reduced sensitivity to photoperiod that is restored by vernalization, thus conferring bienniality, and illustrate how evolutionary plasticity at a key regulatory point can enable new life cycle strategies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Hummelsberger J.,Societas Medicinae Sinensis | Friedl F.,Klinik Silima | Gaus W.,University of Ulm | Kohnen R.,RPS Research Germany GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Forschende Komplementarmedizin | Year: 2015

Background: The use of Chinese medicinal drugs is becoming more common in Germany. However, the import from China results in aggravated quality controls and potentially jeopardized therapeutic safety. Therefore, in 1999 the Bavarian Department for Agriculture has initiated an interdisciplinary research project to cultivate and analyze important Chinese herbal plants. Currently 16 Bavarian-produced Chinese drugs are in use and distributed to patients by pharmacies. Despite a comparable quality of Bavarian pharmaceutical products, there are concerns remaining as the Bavarian medical drugs have been used for treatment purposes on patients since 2006, without their effect having been compared to the Chinese products. Therefore we performed an observational trial using a parallel group design on patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods: The duration of the trial was 4 weeks. After a 4-week follow-up, the patients were interviewed via telephone. During the trial the patients were given 2 × 50 ml of a decoction of Chinese medicinal herbs, either (a) from Bavarian controlled cultivation (Bavaria group) or (b) from Chinese production (China group). The therapeutic success was evaluated using numerical rating scales. Results: In total, 64 patients completed the observational trial (31 Bavaria group, 33 China group). Both groups showed significant improvements in the main symptom scores of chronic rhinosinusitis as well as in secondary symptoms, such as the overall state of health or the tendency to catch a cold. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning the main symptoms scores. Overall the herbal decoctions had no severe side effects. Conclusion: This observational trial shows that Chinese herbal drugs from Bavarian cultivation are as effective as medicinal herbs imported from China, but the effects of concomitant therapies must be considered as well. The symptom score improvements during the treatment period were obvious and should stimulate further investigation on the efficacy of this herbal formula in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Strumpf T.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Engelhard B.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Weihrauch F.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Riepert F.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Steindl A.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2011

Soil samples were taken from 9 conventionally and 4 organically managed hop growing sites, considering all aspects that are relevant for a representative assessment of copper loads. The result of this survey is intended to enable the selection of characteristical cultivation types for each site, which, in combination with a refined exposure analysis, are a prerequisite for the assessment of the effects of copper on earthworm coenoses. Based on total contents, the copper load and its distribution on test and reference fields of German hop cultivation sites is presented. Additionally, the heavy metal content was determined in general, and differences in copper contents between and within hop rows were identified. The management history of the hop sites led to additional heavy metal soil contamination (As, Cr, Pb, Zn, V). Due to different cultural measures exercised in the past, the analyzed total heavy metal contents differ between growing regions. Comparing literature with managing history and current management, it is obvious that peaks of contamination result from applications between 1924 and 1965, when for the control of plant diseases up to 60 kg copper per ha and year were used. The collected data concerning load situation, site description and duration of management suggest that three hop sites are appropriate for a biological assessment of soil quality and its recent impact on earthworm coenoses.

Holzapfel C.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Seidenberger R.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Schmucker R.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG. | Torres-Londono P.,Krauter Mix GmbH | Heuberger H.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung
Zeitschrift fur Arznei- und Gewurzpflanzen | Year: 2015

In the frame of the interdisciplinary project on the field production of Chinese herbal raw material in Germany, quality of drugs from experimental cultivation in Bavaria was compared to quality of imported drugs from China since 2004 by examining identity, purity, active principle content as well as sensory quality. In this paper, results are presented for species whose local cultivation was about to be realized: Glycyrrhiza glabra/G. uralensis, Paeonia lactiflora (radix rubra), Rheum officinale/R. palmatum and Xanthium sibiricum. Overall, drugs from experimental cultivation performed very well and the results have shown that local German cultivation can lead to good, secure, controlled drugs. The first lots of Paeoni ae Radix rubra originating from German commercial cultivation have confirmed this expectation.

Heumann S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Ratjen A.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Kage H.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Bottcher J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

Eliminating uncertainty in soil N supply could reduce fertilizer input, but the amount of N mineralized during plant growth is usually still unknown. We aimed to test the relatively simple two-pool net N mineralization model NET N that uses site-specific temperature and soil water functions as well as pedotransfer functions for deriving the pool sizes and was developed for NW Germany. The objectives were to (1) evaluate, if field net N mineralization under unfertilized winter wheat could be satisfactorily simulated, and to (2) examine the variation in time patterns of net N mineralization within years and sites and from two functional N pools: a rather small, fast mineralizable N pool (Nfast) and a much greater, slowly mineralizable N pool (Nslow). NET N simulations for 36 site-year-combinations and up to five dates within the growing season were evaluated with detailed N balance approaches (calculated from: soil mineral N contents, plant N uptake using estimates of green area index, simulated N leaching). Simulated net N mineralization was highly significantly correlated (r2 = 0.58; root mean square error = 24.2 kg N ha-1) to estimations from the most detailed balance approach, with total simulated net N mineralization until mid August ranging from 62.1 to 196.5 kg N ha-1. It also became evident that N mineralization from pool Nslow-in contrast to pool Nfast-was considerably higher for loess soils than for sandy or loamy soils. The results suggest that NET N was adequate for simulations in unfertilized winter wheat. However, further field studies are necessary for proving its applicability under fertilized conditions. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Maurer K.A.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Berg G.,University of Graz | Seefelder S.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung
Gesunde Pflanzen | Year: 2014

Verticillium wilt is a devastating disease in hops and causes considerable crop losses. V. albo-atrum is the most widespread species, whereas V. dahliae is rarely found. Due to the survival of the fungus for several years in soil by resting structures and the lack of effective chemical control, a fast detection method is needed. One aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Verticillium spp. in the Hallertau region (Germany). Therefore, 76 hop plants, with or without wilt symptoms, were analyzed using a real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. V. albo-atrum was identified in 57 bine samples. The pathogen can sporadically appear without showing visual symptoms. The abundance of the fungus inside the plants was analyzed. Furthermore, four beneficial bacteria, Burkholderia terricola ZR2-12, Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18, and Stenotrophomonas rhizophila DSM14405T, were evaluated as biological control agents in hops. The colonization competence in the root system, plant growing promotion, and antagonistic effects were assessed. All strains colonized the endorhiza and the rhizosphere. The bacterial strains B. terricola ZR2-12, S. plymuthica 3Re4-18, and S. rhizophila DSM14405T are promising candidates for further biocontrol strategies. Thus, first steps towards the biological control of Verticillium wilt were presented. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Heuberger H.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Heubl G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Muller M.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Seefelder S.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Seidenberger R.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung
Zeitschrift fur Arznei- und Gewurzpflanzen | Year: 2012

Valerian occurs in di-, tetra- and octoploid forms prevalent in wide areas of Europe. To select suitable accessions for a breeding program, the relationships within a large collection of accessions were characterized based on DNA and caryological analyses. Cytotypes of 122 valerian accessions were measured by flow cytometry. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism)- markers were used to differentiate and describe the genetic diversity of 106 accessions. To verify the botanical identity, the DNA sequence of the nuclear ITS region of selected accessions was analyzed and compared to available sequences for V. officinalis from NCBI-GenBank. The valerian collection consisted of 13 diploid, 88 tetraploid, 2 mixed di- and tetraploid, 1 mixed tetra- und octoploid, 1 hexaploid und 17 octoploid accessions. All accessions that were declared as cultivars were tetraploid. AFLP analysis of the collection revealed three groupings that largely represented the three cytotypes. The genetic similarity was higher within than between the cytotypes. Each cytotype showed single characteristic fragments. Evaluating a restricted number of accessions, like tetraploid high-potential accessions for the breeding program, the accessions could be differentiated. The ITS sequence for Valeriana officinalis from NCBI-GenBank matched with the sequences of the three diploid accessions. The sequences of the tetra- and octoploid accessions and individuals showed several point mutations compared to the NCBI sequence. However, based on their morphology there is no doubt that all tetra- and octoploid accessions are V. officinalis s.l.

Bomme U.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Rinder R.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung
Zeitschrift fur Arznei- und Gewurzpflanzen | Year: 2010

The knowledge of the apparent density and required space of harvested medicinal and spice plant materials is important to calculate the required capacity of the harvest, transport, processing and storage facilities. However, such information is hardly available. Therefore, in 1990 through 2008, the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture has determined the apparent density and the required space of different plant parts of 42 plant species. Although only a few samples were available for some species, the data can offer rough reference points. A large differentiation among the species has to be considered. The apparent density of fresh plant parts varied from 49 to 491 kg/m3 and of dried plant parts from 17 to 707 kg/m3 for the studied plant species. © Agrimedia GmbH & Co KG 2010.

Leiminger J.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Frank M.,Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung | Wenk C.,Institute For Pflanzenschutz | Poschenrieder G.,Institute For Pflanzenschutz | And 2 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Field-grown potatoes showing scab infections were sampled in two successive years and analysed for prevailing Streptomyces strains. In 2008 and 2009, 293 Streptomyces isolates were collected in Germany and analysed for morphology, pathogenicity and strain type. Isolates varied in mycelium colour, sporulation and pigmentation. Based on their morphology, no clear differentiation of species was possible. At the genetic level, sampled isolates, as well as a number of type strains from culture collections, were characterized by PCR using 16S rRNA-specific primers and PCR-RFLP of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region with Hpy99I. Using this fingerprinting approach, Streptomyces species could be differentiated genotypically. The data from this study show that diversity among scab-causing species in Germany is much higher than previously thought. Isolates belonged to various Streptomyces spp. previously associated with common scab. This is apparently the first report of pathogenic strains of S. europaeiscabiei, S. stelliscabiei, S. acidiscabiei, S. turgidiscabiei and S. bottropensis within Germany. Streptomyces europaeiscabiei was the predominant species found. Other scab-causing species were identified, but their local distribution was uneven. For most of the isolates, the presence of the txtAB gene was demonstrated, indicating pathogenicity. This analysis is one of the first reports to examine the distribution of common scab-causing species in Germany. © 2012 BSPP.

PubMed | Institute For Pflanzenbau Und Pflanzenzuchtung
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

Tests have been made to regenerate plants from different lupin species using leaf, leaf petiole and hypocotyl tissue of L. polyphyllus, L. hartwegii, L. angustifolius and L. luteus. Callus induction rates have been high with all plant parts from all tested lupin species. Regeneration success has been rather limited. One plant could be regenerated from hypocotyl material of L. polyphyllus. Only shoots appeared when using leaf explants from L. luteus or L. hartwegii as well as from leaf petiole tissue of L. hartwegii. With L. angustifolius one regeneration of unknown character occurred.

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