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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Guo Q.,Soochow University of China | Huang J.-A.,Soochow University of China | Yamamura A.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Yamamura A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 8 more authors.
Hypertension Research | Year: 2014

A recent study from our group demonstrated that the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) was upregulated, and the extracellular Ca2+-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ cyt) was enhanced in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and animals with experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, it is unclear whether CaSR antagonists (for example, NPS2143) rescue the development of experimental PH. We tested the rescue effects of NPS2143 in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH and mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH. For the NPS2143 treatment group, rats and mice were i.p. injected with NPS2143 once per day from days 14 to 24. Four weeks after MCT injection or exposure to normobaric hypoxia, the right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, right heart hypertrophy (RV/LV+S ratio) and RV myocardial fibrosis were rescued or nearly restored to normal levels by NPS2143 treatment. The rescue effects of NPS2143 on experimental PH further support a critical role for the CaSR in the PH mechanism. Therefore, NPS2143 may be a promising potential treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved. Source

Desai A.A.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Desai A.A.,Cancer Center | Zhou T.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Ahmad H.,University of Chicago | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Rationale: An increased tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity (TRV > 2.5 m/s) and pulmonary hypertension defined by right heart catheterization both independently confer increased mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Objectives: We explored the usefulness of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived gene signatures as biomarkers for an elevated TRV in SCD. Methods: Twenty-seven patientswith SCD underwent echocardiography and peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation for expression profiling and 112 patients with SCD were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide gene and miRNA expression profiles were correlated against TRV, yielding 631 transcripts and 12 miRNAs. Support vector machine analysis identified a 10-gene signature including GALNT13 (encoding polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 13) that discriminates patients with and without increased TRV with 100% accuracy. This finding was then validated in a cohort of patients with SCD without (n = 10) and with pulmonary hypertension (n = 10,90%accuracy). Increased TRV-related miRNAs revealed strong in silico binding predictions of miR-301a to GALNT13 corroborated by microarray analyses demonstrating an inverse correlation between their expression. A genetic association study comparing patients with an elevated (n = 49) versus normal (n = 63) TRV revealed five significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GALNT13 (P < 0.005), four trans-acting (P < 2.1 × 10-7) and one cis-acting (P = 0.6 × 10-4) expression quantitative trait locus upstream of the adenosine-A2B receptor gene (ADORA2B). Conclusions: These studies validate the clinical usefulness of genomic signatures as potential biomarkers and highlight ADORA2B and GALNT13 as potential candidate genes in SCD-associated elevated TRV. Source

Moreno-Vinasco L.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Quijada H.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Sammani S.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Siegler J.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

We previously identified the intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (iNAMPT, aka pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor) as a candidate gene promoting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) with circulating nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase potently inducing NF-κB signaling in lung endothelium. iNAMPT also synthesizes intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (iNAD) in response to extracellular oxidative stress, contributing to the inhibition of apoptosis via ill-defined mechanisms. We now further define the role of iNAMPT activity in the pathogenesis of ARDS/VILI using the selective iNAMPT inhibitor FK-866. C57/B6 mice were exposed to VILI (40 ml/kg, 4 h) or LPS (1.5 mg/kg, 18 h) after osmotic pump delivery of FK-866 (100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneally). Assessment of total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) levels, cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1α), lung iNAD levels, and injury scores revealed that FK-866-mediated iNAMPT inhibition successfully reduced lung tissue iNAD levels, BAL injury indices, inflammatory cell infiltration, and lung injury scores in LPS- and VILI-exposed mice. FK-866 further increased lungPMNapoptosis, as reflected by caspase-3 activation in BAL PMNs. These findings support iNAMPT inhibition via FK-866 as a novel therapeutic agent for ARDS via enhanced apoptosis in inflammatory PMNs. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Ko E.A.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Ko E.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Wan J.,Institute for Personalized Respiratory Medicine | Wan J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 22 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2013

Electromechanical coupling via membrane depolarization-mediated activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) is an important mechanism in regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while mouse is an animal model often used to study pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease. The function of VDCC in mouse pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells (PASMC), however, has not been characterized, and their functional role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated regulation of vascular function remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of VDCC in PASMC and the divergent effects of ROS produced by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HX) on VDCC in PA and mesenteric artery (MA). Our data show that removal of extracellular Ca2+ or application of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine VDCC blocker, both significantly inhibited 80 mM K+-mediated PA contraction. In freshly dissociated PASMC, the maximum inward Ca2+ currents were -2.6 ± 0.2 pA/pF at +10 mV (with a holding potential of -70 mV). Window currents were between -40 and +10 mV with a peak at -15.4 mV. Nifedipine inhibited currents with an IC50 of 0.023 μM, and 1 μM Bay K8644, a dihydropyridine VDCC agonist, increased the inward currents by 61%. XO/HX attenuated 60 mM K+-mediated increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) due to Ca2+ influx through VDCC in PASMC. Exposure to XO/HX caused relaxation in PA preconstricted by 80 mM K+ but not in aorta and MA. In contrast, H2O2 inhibited high K+-mediated increase in [Ca2+]cyt and caused relaxation in both PA and MA. Indeed, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed significantly lower expression of CaV1.3 in MA compared with PA. Thus our study characterized the properties of VDCC and demonstrates that ROS differentially regulate vascular contraction by regulating VDCC in PA and systemic arteries. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

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