Zürich, Switzerland
Zürich, Switzerland

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Mcgarry J.W.,University of Liverpool | Higgins A.,University of Liverpool | White N.G.,Ribble Vets | Pounder K.C.,University of Liverpool | Hetzel U.,Institute for Veterinary Pathology
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

Summary: Urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry microbial human pathogens but their role as reservoir hosts for helminths of public health importance is less well known. In this study, 42 brown rats trapped on Merseyside were subject to thorough combined helminthological and pathohistological post-mortem examination. Eggs of the rodent-borne zoonotic nematode Calodium hepaticum were initially detected in histological sections of the livers of 9.5% of rats, but overall diagnostic sensitivity increased to 16.6% when entire liver tissue was disrupted and the resulting filtrates were examined for released eggs. In their rat host, mainly trapped inside the dockland, infections with C. hepaticum were associated with a chronic multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with intralesional eggs and peripheral fibrosis. Mean intensity of hepatic C. hepaticum egg infections was 1041 eggs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in an urban brown rat population in the UK and provides original data for liver egg burdens in this abundant commensal rodent. The zoonotic cestode Rodentolepis nana had a prevalence of infection of 14.3%. Rodent-specific, non-zoonotic helminths found were the spiruroid Mastophorus muris (16.0%) in the stomach, the trichuroid Trichosomoides crassicauda in the urinary bladder (31.0%); the ascarid Heterakis spumosa was the commonest helminth of the large intestine (76.2%). Many millions of brown rats inhabit cities and rural areas of the UK, and the infective stages of the zoonotic worm species, particularly C. hepaticum, are likely to be widely distributed in the environment presenting a threat to public health. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Schmidt F.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Marx-Stoelting P.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Haider W.,Institute for Veterinary Pathology | Heise T.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2016

Two 28-day feeding studies were performed in male rats to investigate combination effects of azole fungicides in a broad dose range. Following separate administration of cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole at five dose levels, the first three compounds were selected to be administered in two different mixtures at three dose levels including very low doses. Here we present the data obtained by clinical observations, pathology, histopathology, clinical chemistry and haematology. The liver was the common main target organ of all compounds and their mixtures. In addition, epoxiconazole exhibited an effect on the adrenals. Furthermore, food consumption and efficiency and body weight (gain) were affected. Adverse effects of the combinations were observed at dose levels at which the individual substances caused similar effects. No evidence of adverse effects was found at dose levels below the previously established NOAELs. Our findings indicate that the concept of dose additivity appears sufficiently protective for risk assessment of the fungicides examined. Besides toxicological testing, tissue residues of the azole compounds in liver, testis and kidney were determined revealing remarkable differences following administration of the single substances and of the mixtures. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Institute for Veterinary Pathology, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR and Free University of Berlin
Type: | Journal: Toxicology | Year: 2016

Two 28-day feeding studies were performed in male rats to investigate combination effects of azole fungicides in a broad dose range. Following separate administration of cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole at five dose levels, the first three compounds were selected to be administered in two different mixtures at three dose levels including very low doses. Here we present the data obtained by clinical observations, pathology, histopathology, clinical chemistry and haematology. The liver was the common main target organ of all compounds and their mixtures. In addition, epoxiconazole exhibited an effect on the adrenals. Furthermore, food consumption and efficiency and body weight (gain) were affected. Adverse effects of the combinations were observed at dose levels at which the individual substances caused similar effects. No evidence of adverse effects was found at dose levels below the previously established NOAELs. Our findings indicate that the concept of dose additivity appears sufficiently protective for risk assessment of the fungicides examined. Besides toxicological testing, tissue residues of the azole compounds in liver, testis and kidney were determined revealing remarkable differences following administration of the single substances and of the mixtures.

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