Institute for Veterinary Pathology

Zürich, Switzerland

Institute for Veterinary Pathology

Zürich, Switzerland
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Rieke S.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Heise T.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Schmidt F.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Haider W.,Institute for Veterinary Pathology | And 9 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2017

Consumers are exposed to low concentrations of a variety of pesticide residues in or on food. Some of them might interfere with the endocrine system. While each individual active substance has been extensively tested for toxicity and safety, potential combination effects possibly resulting from combined exposure to different pesticides have seldomly been tested so far, especially in vivo. Since the adrenal gland is a key endocrine organ, we investigated if and how substances of a group of fungicides presumed to interfere with the biosynthesis of steroid hormones affect this organ when applied individually and in combination in a broad dose range. A 28-day feeding study was conducted in Wistar rats by using three (tri)azole fungicides considered to potentially affect the endocrine system (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole and prochloraz) individually at five dose levels, ranging from 0.9 ppm to 2400 ppm, and in combination at three dose levels. The parameters analysed included classical toxicology (pathology, histopathology, clinical chemistry) and molecular toxicology endpoints (gene expression arrays and quantitative real time PCR e.g. of Star, HSD3β, Cyp11a1, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, Cyp 21, ApoE), as well as hormone analysis. A dose-dependent decrease in the adrenal gland weight of rats treated with epoxiconazole alone, which was accompanied by an atrophy of the adrenal gland as well as by an increase in the serum cholesterol level and which only became statistically significant at the top dose levels, was observed. These effects were attenuated in the combination experiments, although the same epoxiconazole concentration was used. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Mcgarry J.W.,University of Liverpool | Higgins A.,University of Liverpool | White N.G.,Ribble Vets | Pounder K.C.,University of Liverpool | Hetzel U.,Institute for Veterinary Pathology
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

Summary: Urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry microbial human pathogens but their role as reservoir hosts for helminths of public health importance is less well known. In this study, 42 brown rats trapped on Merseyside were subject to thorough combined helminthological and pathohistological post-mortem examination. Eggs of the rodent-borne zoonotic nematode Calodium hepaticum were initially detected in histological sections of the livers of 9.5% of rats, but overall diagnostic sensitivity increased to 16.6% when entire liver tissue was disrupted and the resulting filtrates were examined for released eggs. In their rat host, mainly trapped inside the dockland, infections with C. hepaticum were associated with a chronic multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with intralesional eggs and peripheral fibrosis. Mean intensity of hepatic C. hepaticum egg infections was 1041 eggs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in an urban brown rat population in the UK and provides original data for liver egg burdens in this abundant commensal rodent. The zoonotic cestode Rodentolepis nana had a prevalence of infection of 14.3%. Rodent-specific, non-zoonotic helminths found were the spiruroid Mastophorus muris (16.0%) in the stomach, the trichuroid Trichosomoides crassicauda in the urinary bladder (31.0%); the ascarid Heterakis spumosa was the commonest helminth of the large intestine (76.2%). Many millions of brown rats inhabit cities and rural areas of the UK, and the infective stages of the zoonotic worm species, particularly C. hepaticum, are likely to be widely distributed in the environment presenting a threat to public health. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Schmidt F.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Marx-Stoelting P.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Haider W.,Institute for Veterinary Pathology | Heise T.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2016

Two 28-day feeding studies were performed in male rats to investigate combination effects of azole fungicides in a broad dose range. Following separate administration of cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole at five dose levels, the first three compounds were selected to be administered in two different mixtures at three dose levels including very low doses. Here we present the data obtained by clinical observations, pathology, histopathology, clinical chemistry and haematology. The liver was the common main target organ of all compounds and their mixtures. In addition, epoxiconazole exhibited an effect on the adrenals. Furthermore, food consumption and efficiency and body weight (gain) were affected. Adverse effects of the combinations were observed at dose levels at which the individual substances caused similar effects. No evidence of adverse effects was found at dose levels below the previously established NOAELs. Our findings indicate that the concept of dose additivity appears sufficiently protective for risk assessment of the fungicides examined. Besides toxicological testing, tissue residues of the azole compounds in liver, testis and kidney were determined revealing remarkable differences following administration of the single substances and of the mixtures. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Institute for Veterinary Pathology, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR and Free University of Berlin
Type: | Journal: Toxicology | Year: 2016

Two 28-day feeding studies were performed in male rats to investigate combination effects of azole fungicides in a broad dose range. Following separate administration of cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, and tebuconazole at five dose levels, the first three compounds were selected to be administered in two different mixtures at three dose levels including very low doses. Here we present the data obtained by clinical observations, pathology, histopathology, clinical chemistry and haematology. The liver was the common main target organ of all compounds and their mixtures. In addition, epoxiconazole exhibited an effect on the adrenals. Furthermore, food consumption and efficiency and body weight (gain) were affected. Adverse effects of the combinations were observed at dose levels at which the individual substances caused similar effects. No evidence of adverse effects was found at dose levels below the previously established NOAELs. Our findings indicate that the concept of dose additivity appears sufficiently protective for risk assessment of the fungicides examined. Besides toxicological testing, tissue residues of the azole compounds in liver, testis and kidney were determined revealing remarkable differences following administration of the single substances and of the mixtures.

Loading Institute for Veterinary Pathology collaborators
Loading Institute for Veterinary Pathology collaborators