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Strohaber J.,Texas A&M University | Kaya G.,Texas A&M University | Kaya N.,Texas A&M University | Hart N.,Texas A&M University | And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We present an in situ beam characterization technique to analyze femtosecond optical beams in a folded version of a 2f-2f setup. This technique makes use of a two-dimensional spatial light modulator (SLM) to holographically redirect radiation between different diffraction orders. This manipulation of light between diffraction orders is carried out locally within the beam. Because SLMs can withstand intensities of up to , this makes them suitable for amplified femtosecond radiation. The flexibility of the SLM was demonstrated by producing a diverse assortment of "soft apertures" that are mechanically difficult or impossible to reproduce. We test our method by holographically knife-edging and tomographically reconstructing both continuous wave and broadband radiation in transverse optical modes. 11 2 10 W/cm I ©2011 Optical Society of America. Source

Strohaber J.,Texas A&M University | Zhi M.,Texas A&M University | Sokolov A.V.,Texas A&M University | Kolomenskii A.A.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Experimental results from the generation of Raman sidebands using optical vortices are presented. By generating two sets of sidebands originating from different locations in a Raman-active crystal, one set containing optical orbital angular momentum and the other serving as a reference, Young's double slit experiment was simultaneously realized for each sideband. The interference between the two sets of sidebands was used to determine the helicity and topological charge in each order. Topological charges in all orders were found to be discrete and follow selection rules predicted by a cascaded Raman process. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source

Zeidler S.,Astrophysikalisches Institute | Posch T.,Institute For Astronomie | Mutschke H.,Astrophysikalisches Institute | Richter H.,Institute For Astronomie | Wehrhan O.,Institute For Optik Und Quantenelektronik
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Context. Several astrophysically relevant solid oxides and silicates have extremely small opacities in the visual and near-infrared in their pure forms. Datasets for the opacities and for the imaginary part k of their complex indices of refraction are hardly available in these wavelength ranges. Aims. We aimed at determining k for spinel, rutile, anatase, and olivine, especially in the near-infrared region. Our measurements were made with impurity-containing, natural, and synthetic stardust analogs. Methods. Two experimental methods were used: preparing small sections of natural minerals and synthesizing melt droplets under the electric arc furnace. In both cases, the aborption properties of the samples were measured by transmission spectroscopy. Results. For spinel (MgAl2O4), anatase, rutile (both TiO2), and olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4), the optical constants have been extended to the visual and near-infrared. We highlight that the individual values of k(λ) and the absorption cross section Qabs(λ) depend strongly on the content in transition metals like iron. Based on our measurements, we infer that k values below 10-5 are very rare in natural minerals including stardust grains, if they occur at all. Conclusions. Data for k and Qabs(λ) are important for various physical properties of stardust grains such as temperature and radiation pressure. With increasing Qabs(λ) due to impurities, the equilibrium temperature of small grains in circumstellar shells increases as well. We discuss why and to what extent this is the case. © 2010 ESO. Source

Bellei C.,Imperial College London | Nagel S.R.,Imperial College London | Kar S.,Queens University of Belfast | Henig A.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | And 31 more authors.
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

The transport of relativistic electrons generated in the interaction of petawatt class lasers with solid targets has been studied through measurements of the second harmonic optical emission from their rear surface. The high degree of polarization of the emission indicates that it is predominantly optical transition radiation (TR). A halo that surrounds the main region of emission is also polarized and is attributed to the effect of electron recirculation. The variation of the polarization state and intensity of radiation with the angle of observation indicates that the emission of TR is highly directional and provides evidence for the presence of μm-size filaments. A brief discussion on the possible causes of such a fine electron beam structure is given. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Source

Karbstein F.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Karbstein F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gies H.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Gies H.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 5 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of nonlinear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generation of FEL/high-field laser facilities. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

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