Tzortzakis N.G.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania
Horticultural Science | Year: 2010
Salinity either of soil or of irrigation water causes disturbance in plant growth and nutrient balance and reduces crop yields. The effects of NaCl salinity and/or calcium or potassium level on the plant growth and severity of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea [De Bary] Whetzel) were investigated in endive (Cichorium endivia L., cv. Green Curled) grown with the nutrient film technique under greenhouse conditions during early spring. Plants were supplied with nutrient solutions containing 40 mmol/l of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or 10 mmol/l potassium sulphate (K2SO4). Additionally, plants treated with foliar spray of 15 mmol/l calcium nitrate [(CaNO3) 2] or distilled water. Salinity or K- and Ca-enrichment mainly affected the upper part of endive plants and reduced leaf area. However, when salinity combined with either K- or Ca-enrichment, the negative impact of salinity on plant growth was reversed. Salinized and/or K- and Ca-enriched, plants did not differ in plant biomass, leaf/root ratio, leaf fresh weight, leaf number, and root length. Salinity did not have any impacts on photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. Indeed, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased with Ca foliar application and decreased with K while the opposite effects were observed for the intercellular CO2 concentration. Total nutrient uptake was reduced 2-fold in salt-treated plants compared to controls. No symptoms of tip-burn or blackheart were recorded throughout the experimental study. Endive grown in the nutrient film technique had tolerance to NaCl salinity, and this method could be used to exploit saline water in soilless culture. These findings also suggest that a proper management of the salt concentration of the nutrient solution plus external elemental enrichment may provide an efficient tool to improve the quality of leafy vegetables with little effect on yield.
Markakis E.A.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania |
Ligoxigakis E.K.,Plant Protection Institute of Iraklio |
Avramidou E.V.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Tzanidakis N.,Veterinary Research Institute
Plant Disease | Year: 2014
The present study was carried out to determine the survival, persistence, and infection efficiency of Verticillium dahliae passed through the digestive tract of sheep. Eggplant, turnip, tomato, and pepper plants were artificially inoculated with 32 V. dahliae isolates. At 33 days postinoculation, the disease incidence and severity for eggplant, turnip, tomato, and pepper plants were 99.6, 96.2, 62.9, and 18.0% and 80.1, 49.8, 19.8, and 7.8%, respectively. The infected plant material was used to feed four 1-year-old sheep. Polymerase chain reaction assays revealed the presence of V. dahliae DNA in fecal samples received from animals' rectum on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, whereas the pathogen DNA was not detected on 0, 6, and 7 days after feeding. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by transplanting eggplant plants into soil substrate amended with 20% decomposed manure, collected from the four animals fed with the infested forage. At 52 days after transplanting, manure-treated plants exhibited Verticillium wilt symptoms whereas, 2 months later, disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage of positive V. dahliae isolations from stem tissues were 58.3, 30.7, and 48.3%, respectively. Symptoms or positive isolations were not observed in control plants (transplanted in 100% soil substrate). This is the first report of the active role of V. dahliae passed through the digestive system of sheep as effective inoculum for host plants, in relation to the span persistence and transmission via the sheep carrier. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.
Ragab R.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology |
Battilani A.,Consorzio Bonifica CER |
Matovic G.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania |
Stikic R.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania |
And 2 more authors.
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2015
This paper is a follow-up from a paper which described the SALTMED model. In this paper the focus is on the model application, using data of tomato and potato from field experiments in Italy, Greece (Crete) and Serbia. Drip full irrigation, drip deficit irrigation, drip as partial root drying (PRD), sprinkler and furrow irrigation were used in the 3-yr experiment between 2006 and 2008. In drip-irrigated experiments, the drip line was 10-12 cm below the surface. Dry matter, final yield, soil moisture and soil nitrogen were successfully simulated. The study showed that there is a great potential for saving water when using subsurface drip, PRD or drip deficit irrigation compared with sprinkler and furrow irrigation. Depending on the crop and irrigation system, the amount of fresh water that can be saved could vary between 14 and 44%. PRD and deficit drip irrigation have proved to be the most efficient water application strategies with the highest water productivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Koubouris G.C.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania |
Koubouris G.C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Breton C.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Metzidakis I.T.,Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of Chania |
Vasilakakis M.D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014
The present three-year study aimed to (1) determine the number of flowers per inflorescence, (2) determine the proportion of hermaphrodite flowers and (3) investigate the genetic and environmental components of self-incompatibility through controlled pollination trials, followed by microscopic observation of in vivo pollen tube growth for olive cultivars '. Koroneiki', '. Kalamata', '. Mastoidis' and '. Amygdalolia'. Significant differences between cultivars and years were observed for number of flowers/inflorescence and hermaphrodite flowers percentage. The highest number of flowers was observed for 'Kalamata' panicles followed by '. Koroneiki', whereas the lower numbers were for '. Mastoidis' and '. Amygdalolia'. The highest percentage of hermaphrodite flowers was observed for '. Koroneiki', followed by '. Kalamata' while lower levels were counted for '. Mastoidis' and '. Amygdalolia'. '. Koroneiki' showed a noteworthy capability (3.6-8.7% of hermaphrodite flowers) to set fruit through self pollination. Lower fruit set rates were counted for '. Mastoidis' (1.7-2.6%) and 'Amygdalolia' (0.5-2.4%). The lowest level of fruit set was observed for '. Kalamata' (0.4-2%). In the case of cross pollination, the highest fruit set rates were observed for 'Koroneiki', intermediate rates were counted for '. Mastoidis', followed by '. Amygdalolia', and the lowest levels of fruit set were counted for '. Kalamata'. In the framework of the sporophytic SI system, we attributed R2R4 to '. Mastoidis' and '. Kalamata', R1R2 to 'Amygdalolia' and R4R6 to '. Koroneiki'. Based on the results of these experiments, recommendations were released on cross pollination requirements and combinations with compatible cultivars for setting up new olive orchards to ensure high fruit sets and adequate yields. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.