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Wyss U.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Mosimann E.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016

Although catch crops contribute to additional feed production, they are also considered to be difficult to ensile. In a trial, the ensilability and silage quality of the two standard mixtures 101 and 106 as well as mixtures with black oats, sorghum and foxtail millet were investigated. In addition to variants without an additive, we also tested variants with the chemical silage additive Kofasil Plus. Based on the fermentability coefficient, all mixtures were rated as difficult to ensile. Without a silage additive, the mixtures 101 and 106 silages as well as the mixture with black oats had very high butyric acid contents and pH values, and thus a very poor silage quality. With the addition of the silage additive, butyric acid formation was prevented. Despite this, the silages had a high acetic acid content. Only small amounts of butyric acid were detected in the two mixtures with sorghum and foxtail millet with and without silage additive. The addition of a silage additive also had a positive impact on the nutritional values. NEL content was in all cases higher in the treated silages than in the untreated silages. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.


Morel I.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Oberson J.-L.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Guggiari S.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Dufey P.-A.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016

In alpine-cheese production areas, whey represents an important source of available energy which is both largely untapped and problematic for the environment if it is not properly disposed of. Its utilisation by beef cattle was studied in two trials, each comprising 48 heifers and steers belonging to different breeds or crosses of beef breeds, and allocated to three experimental treatments: a control treatment with access to pasture grass only and two treatments receiving a supplement to grazing, either barley or warm non-centrifuged whey distributed once daily by group in a limited quantity (2012) or ad libitum (2013). The three groups, each comprising 16 animals with an average live weight of 480kg, were summer-grazed in the Jura at an altitude of 1200 m for 95 days. When provided ad libitum, the whey was consumed at the rate of 32.9 litres per animal and per day, and significantly increased the daily weight gain compared to the animals receiving no supplement with no negative effect on carcass quality or health, but with a 60% reduction in water requirement. In conclusion, this production system turns out to be a promising alternative enabling value-added to be given to a by-product such as whey. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.


Dufey P.-A.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Messadene J.,Institute For Lebensmittelwissenschaften Ilm | Silacci P.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016

Whey is present in large quantities in the alpine-cheese production zones, and represents a source of energy that should be utilised. The quality of the meat from 96 beef cattle which either consumed or did not consume this by-product was compared in two trials carried out 2012 and 2013. The animals, with an average live weight of 480 kg, consisted half of heifers and half of steers, belonged to different breeds or crosses of beef breeds, and were fattened for 95 days in mid-mountain areas. The animals were allocated to one of three experimental treatments: grazing (G), or grazing with an energy supplement in the form of barley (B) or warm, full-fat whey (W) distributed in a limited quantity (2012) or ad libitum (2013). Distributed at an average rate of 25 or 33 litres per day and animal, whey did not affect the sensorial and physicochemical properties of the meat. The fatty-acid profile of interest was only very slightly modified by the feeding treatment. Breed had a much more pronounced impact on the full set of variables. Meat from animals that consumed whey was 100% identifiable via a multivariate analysis including certain fatty acids. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.


Arrigo Y.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Henneberger S.,Hochschule fur Agrar Forst und Lebensmittelwissenschaften HAFL | Wyss U.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015

Requiring few inputs, protein plant–immature cereal mixtures can guarantee forage stocks in times of shortage. In order to test whether and how the principle of additivity predicts nutritional value, we conducted in vivo digestibility tests and in sacco degradability tests (crude protein degradability, CPD) to evaluate silages from two mixtures with different protein-plant (i.e., pea) contents. The mixture with low pea content, PEAS-l, contained 60 % triticale, 28 % oats and 13 % peas, whereas that with high pea content, PEAS-h, contained 35 % triticale, 24 % oats and 41 % peas). The same tests were conducted with the silages of the constituents (triticale, oats and forage peas). Of the two mixtures, PEAS-h had the highest digestibility figures (for organic matter: 76.5 vs. 61.9 %). The CPD was statistically similar between the mixtures. Furthermore, PEAS-h produced 6.4 MJ net energy content for lactation (NEL) per kg of dry matter (DM), whereas PEAS-l produced 4.9 MJ NEL/ kg DM. Mixtures reconstituted at the manger with the pure silages produced values similar to those of sown mixtures. The constituent additivity hypothesis correctly predicted the values for PEAS-l, the cereal-dominated mixture, but strongly underestimated those for PEAS-h. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.


Experiments with various mixtures containing triticale, oats and forage peas were carried out at Agroscope Posieux in 2012 and 2013. The crops were harvested on two dates, chopped, and ensiled in laboratory silos. In addition, the influence of a chemical silage additive on lactic acid fermentation as well as the aerobic stability was studied for some mixtures. Results showed that the ensilaged materials had high sugar contents, high fermentability coefficients, and low nitrate contents. Some of the mixtures and individual plants ensiled on the first date had a relatively high butyric acid content and hence poor silage quality. Of the three plants contained in the mixture, oats were particularly responsible for the poor quality. The addition of a chemical silage additive reduced butyric acid and ethanol formation as well as fermentation gas losses; in addition, it improved the aerobic stability of the silages. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.


Kragten S.A.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Wyss U.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2014

Forages in the light of NIRS An insight into the determination of the chemical composition of forages via NIRS is presented. Predictive models developed at the Agroscope Institute for Livestock Sciences ILS show the typical values: R2 > 0.96 for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ADForg, NDForg, crude fibre (CF), cellulose, ash, fat, sugar and starch content in hay and grass, grass silage, green maize for silage and maize silage. The analysis of individual samples by NIRS is preferred to the analysis of a pooled sample by classical methods because NIRS shows the individual particularities of each sample.


Wyss U.,Institute For Nutztierwissenschaften Int | Metthez C.,Zuckerfabriken Aarberg und Frauenfeld AG
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2014

Currently, pressed sugar-beet pulp is delivered with a DM content of around 25 %. In future, sugar refineries hope to press the pulp even harder, with a view to reducing transported quantities. In the present study, we investigated the influence of higher DM content on silage quality and aerobic stability in various silage methods. To this end, pressed pulp with 25 % and 34 % DM was ensiled in large bales, in a large plastic bag, and in a bunker silo. Several samples were taken during feed-out. The crude nutrients of the standard pulp and of the pressed pulp with the higher DM content were practically identical in both the basic raw material and in the silages. Small differences were observed in the raw material of the two sugar refineries. The pulp that was pressed harder exhibited higher DM density and better aerobic stability than the standard pulp. All silages were characterised by both good fermentation quality and good microbiological quality.


The effect of type of ration on feed intake was studied in a trial with 36 lactating cows of the Angus (AN), Limousin (LM) and Limousin x Red Holstein cross breeds (F1) during the first four months of lactation. Two iso-energetic rations fed ad libitum were compared: a dry ration (D) composed of hay and aftermath, and a moist ration (M, 53 % DM) composed of a mixture of hay and grass silage. The cows fed ration D consumed 0.87 kg DM more per day than those fed ration M from the second to the fourth month of lactation (P<0.001), and 0.76 kg DM more per day over the entire trial period (P=0.07). Major differences were observed between the different genetic types (F1>AN>LM; P<0.001). A comparison of the ingestion data measured in this trial with the prediction formulas currently used in Switzerland revealed a systematic underestimation of feed intake. Moreover, no prediction formula took simultaneous account of the effect of ration type on the one hand, and genetic type on the other. A new prediction equation taking these new data into account will be published shortly, once the ‘suckler cow’ chapter of the Swiss feeding recommendations for ruminants (Green Book) is updated. © 2014, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All right reserved.


Field-dried hay must be sufficiently dry at harvest for problem-free storage. Alternatively, preservatives that prevent heating and spoilage may be added to the hay. In a trial, the efficacy of various microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and enzymes) as well as of a product containing various acids was tested in moist hay with a DM content of 75 % on a laboratory scale.The positive control with propionic acid was the only one preventing the heating and deterioration of the hay. The variants with different microorganisms or a chemical product were not effective: the forage heated, and was highly mouldy at the end of the test. © 2014, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All right reserved.


The effectiveness of two different diarrhoeaprevention diets was tested using 192 newly weaned Large White pigs. The control diet contained 175 g crude protein (CP), 42 g ADF, 116 g NDF and 13.9 MJ digestible energy (DE) per kg. The ‘SM’ and ‘AP’ experimental diets comprising 20% whole carob pods plus 8% straw meal and 30% whole carob pods plus 9% apple pomace, respectively, contained 150 g CP, 106 and 146 g ADF, 190 and 245 g NDF, as well as 11.5 and 11.1MJ DE per kg, respectively. The SM diet neither reduced the number of days with diarrhoea (0.19 vs. 0.23 days per piglet fed the SM diet and the control diet, respectively; P > 0.10) nor the average fecal score (P > 0.10). By contrast, the AP diet reduced the number of days with diarrhoea (0.8 vs. 2.0 days per piglet fed the AP diet and the control diet, respectively; P < 0.01), and improved the average fecal score (P < 0.01). Since carob seeds probably increase intestinal viscosity and may thus increase the risk of diarrhoea, carob pods without seeds may be more effective in preventing diarrhoea. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique, All rights reserved.

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