Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research

Muscle, Australia

Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research

Muscle, Australia

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O'Grady G.L.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Yuen M.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Fock J.M.,University of Sydney | Fock J.M.,University of Groningen | And 19 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2016

Objective: To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome secondary to biallelic variants in SLC18A3. Methods: Individuals from 2 families were identified with biallelic variants in SLC18A3, the gene encoding the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), through whole-exome sequencing. Results: The patients demonstrated features seen in presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome, including ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, fatigable weakness, apneic crises, and deterioration of symptoms in cold water for patient 1. Both patients demonstrated moderate clinical improvement on pyridostigmine. Patient 1 had a broader phenotype, including learning difficulties and left ventricular dysfunction. Electrophysiologic studies were typical for a presynaptic defect. Both patients showed profound electrodecrement on low-frequency repetitive stimulation followed by a prolonged period of postactivation exhaustion. In patient 1, this was unmasked only after isometric contraction, a recognized feature of presynaptic disease, emphasizing the importance of activation procedures. Conclusions: VAChT is responsible for uptake of acetylcholine into presynaptic vesicles. The clinical and electrographic characteristics of the patients described are consistent with previously reported mouse models of VAChT deficiency. These findings make it very likely that defects in VAChT due to variants in SLC18A3 are a cause of congenital myasthenic syndrome in humans. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.


Papandreou A.,University College London | Schneider R.B.,Center for Human Experimental Therapeutics | Augustine E.F.,Center for Human Experimental Therapeutics | Ng J.,University College London | And 19 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2016

Objective: The primary objective of this research was to characterize the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations. Methods: We identified patients with FOXG1 mutations who were referred to either a tertiary movement disorder clinic or tertiary epilepsy service and retrospectively reviewed medical records, clinical investigations, neuroimaging, and available video footage. We administered a telephone-based questionnaire regarding the functional impact of the movement disorders and perceived efficacy of treatment to the caregivers of one cohort of participants. Results: We identified 28 patients with FOXG1 mutations, of whom 6 had previously unreported mutations. A wide variety of movement disorders were identified, with dystonia, choreoathetosis, and orolingual/facial dyskinesias most commonly present. Ninety-three percent of patients had a mixed movement disorder phenotype. In contrast to the phenotype classically described with FOXG1 mutations, 4 patients with missense mutations had a milder phenotype, with independent ambulation, spoken language, and normocephaly. Hyperkinetic involuntary movements were a major clinical feature in these patients. Of the symptomatic treatments targeted to control abnormal involuntary movements, most did not emerge as clearly beneficial, although 4 patients had a caregiver-reported response to levodopa. Conclusions: Abnormal involuntary movements are a major feature of FOXG1 mutations. Our study delineates the spectrum of movement disorders and confirms an expanding clinical phenotype. Symptomatic treatment may be considered for severe or disabling cases, although further research regarding potential treatment strategies is necessary. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.


Pillai S.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Pillai S.,Childrens Hospital at Westmead | Tantsis E.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Tantsis E.,Childrens Hospital at Westmead | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology | Year: 2015

Background Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system have generally been separated into infectious or immune-mediated aetiologies. However, there are emerging examples of confirmed infectious viral infection of the brain followed by secondary inflammation or autoimmunity that is amenable to immune suppressive therapies. Methods We report four children with confirmed enterovirus encephalitis (CSF enterovirus PCR positivity), who had MRI evidence of inflammatory demyelination compatible with ADEM. Results Two patients had a monophasic course, whereas two had a biphasic course. Serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies were negative in two tested patients, although all patients had mirrored CSF and serum oligoclonal bands. All four patients only improved with introduction of immune therapy (corticosteroids in three, corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin in one). Conclusion These cases provide a further example of the overlap between CNS infection and immune mediated CNS disease. Randomised controlled trials investigating immune therapies in encephalitis are required. © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society.


Ilkovski B.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | Pagnamenta A.T.,University of Oxford | O'Grady G.L.,Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research | O'Grady G.L.,University of Sydney | And 31 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are ubiquitously expressed in the human body and are important for various functions at the cell surface. Mutations in many GPI biosynthesis genes have been described to date in patients with multi-system disease and together these constitute a subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. We used whole exome sequencing in two families to investigate the genetic basis of disease and used RNA and cellular studies to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variants in the PIGY gene. Two families with different phenotypes had homozygous recessive sequence variants in the GPI biosynthesis gene PIGY. Two sisters with c.137T>C (p. Leu46Pro) PIGY variants had multi-system disease including dysmorphism, seizures, severe developmental delay, cataracts and early death. There were significantly reduced levels of GPI-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) on the surface of patient-derived skin fibroblasts (~20-50% compared with controls). In a second, consanguineous family, two siblings had moderate development delay and microcephaly. A homozygous PIGY promoter variant (c.-540G≥A) was detected within a 7.7 Mb region of autozygosity. This variant was predicted to disrupt a SP1 consensus binding site and was shown to be associated with reduced gene expression. Mutations in PIGY can occur in coding and non-coding regions of the gene and cause variable phenotypes. This article contributes to understanding of the range of disease phenotypes and disease genes associated with deficiencies of the GPIanchor biosynthesis pathway and also serves to highlight the potential importance of analysing variants detected in 5'-UTR regions despite their typically low coverage in exome data. © The Author 2015.


PubMed | Childrens Hospital at Westmead, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Oxford Genetics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and 8 more.
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2015

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are ubiquitously expressed in the human body and are important for various functions at the cell surface. Mutations in many GPI biosynthesis genes have been described to date in patients with multi-system disease and together these constitute a subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. We used whole exome sequencing in two families to investigate the genetic basis of disease and used RNA and cellular studies to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variants in the PIGY gene. Two families with different phenotypes had homozygous recessive sequence variants in the GPI biosynthesis gene PIGY. Two sisters with c.137T>C (p.Leu46Pro) PIGY variants had multi-system disease including dysmorphism, seizures, severe developmental delay, cataracts and early death. There were significantly reduced levels of GPI-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) on the surface of patient-derived skin fibroblasts (20-50% compared with controls). In a second, consanguineous family, two siblings had moderate development delay and microcephaly. A homozygous PIGY promoter variant (c.-540G>A) was detected within a 7.7 Mb region of autozygosity. This variant was predicted to disrupt a SP1 consensus binding site and was shown to be associated with reduced gene expression. Mutations in PIGY can occur in coding and non-coding regions of the gene and cause variable phenotypes. This article contributes to understanding of the range of disease phenotypes and disease genes associated with deficiencies of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway and also serves to highlight the potential importance of analysing variants detected in 5-UTR regions despite their typically low coverage in exome data.

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