Institute for Natural Science

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Institute for Natural Science

Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Gregori A.,Institute for Natural Science | Svagelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Voglar D.,University of Ljubljana | Berovic M.,University of Ljubljana
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2016

Growth characteristics of medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa mycelia were studied in solid-state cultivation on various solid-state substrates in different setups. The mycelial growth rate was determined in racing tubes by the measurement of ergosterol content. The fastest growth rate of 3.76 mm d-1 and the highest biomass amount of 54 mg g-1 were achieved. The results were scaled-up in a horizontal stirred bioreactor, where higher amounts of biomass (53.2 mg g-1 in 42 days) were achieved. These results represent an available platform for large-scale production of medicinal fungi biomass in bioreactors.

Svagelj M.,University of Ljubljana | Berovic M.,University of Ljubljana | Gregori A.,Institute for Natural science | Wraber B.,University of Ljubljana | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2012

Grifola frondosa is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that contains several physiologically active compounds, of which polysaccharides, specifically β-glucans, are known to possess immunomodulating properties. Its extracts are studied for application as adjuncts for chemotherapy, and experiments in animal models support the use of this mushroom for cancer treatment. The effect of extracts obtained from mushrooms cultivated on different substrates and their capacity of inducing the secretion of cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were studied. The activity of extracts at concentrations 12.5, 100, and 200 μg/mL on induction of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12 was screened. Two extracts from substrates fortified with olive oil press cakes showed appreciable activity and induced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-12, and INF-γ. The extracts differed from the others in the amount of sugar, protein, and β-glucans, which can explain their higher activity. Present results show that different substrates and different source materials can reasonably modify the bioactivity of cultivated G. frondosa. © 2012 Begell House, Inc.

Gregori A.,Institute for Natural science | Gregori A.,MycoMedica D.o.o. | Pohleven F.,University of Ljubljana
Acta Agriculturae Slovenica | Year: 2014

Olive oil press cakes (OOPC) represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

Cor D.,University of Maribor | Botic T.,University of Maribor | Knez Z.,University of Maribor | Batista U.,Institute for Biophysics | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2014

Ganoderma lucidum has been used in oriental medicine for its contribution to vitality and longevity. None of them report about targeted antitumor activity against adenocarcinoma cells, or antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activity for potential application in treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there are a few studies available concerning supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of biologically active compounds from G. lucidum fruiting body. In our study, two stage extractions of biologically active compounds from G. lucidum were performed. First, supercritical carbon dioxide was used as extraction solvent. Next, the same material was used for hot water isolation of biologically active polysaccharides. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activity were tested for all obtained extracts. Additionally, the effect of extraction process conditions on the biological activity of extracts was assessed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sel N.B.,Scientific Research Center Bistra Ptuj | Gregori A.,Institute for Natural Science | Leitgeb M.,University of Maribor | Klinara D.,Scientific Research Center Bistra Ptuj | Celan S.,Scientific Research Center Bistra Ptuj
Acta Chimica Slovenica | Year: 2015

The objective of this work was to increase laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus PLAB through culture medium optimization using solid-state culture conditions. Increased laccase activity was obtained through the design of experiments (DOE) using the Taguchi orthogonal array (OA). Seven factors, viz. lignocellulose, glucose, yeast extract, peptone, KH2PO4, MgSO4 · 7H2O and MnSO4 · H2O at three levels and pH at two levels with OA layout of L18 (21 × 37) were selected for the proposed experimental design using Minitab 17 software. Data analysis showed that lignocellulose (20%) and glucose (10 g L-1) had a positive effect, whereas KH2PO4, MgSO4 · 7H2O and MnSO4 · H2O did not have a significant effect on laccase production. Taguchi OA analysis showed that pH 6, lignocellulose 20%, glucose 10 g L-1, yeast extract 6 g L-1, peptone 15 g L-1, KH2PO4 3 g L-1, MgSO4 · 7H2O 0.5 g L-1 and MnSO4 · H2O 0.1 g L-1 were the optimal conditions to maximize laccase production. The model predicted a 30.37 U g-1 dry wt., which agreed with the experimentally obtained laccase activity 29.15 U g-1 dry wt. at optimal conditions.

Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

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