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Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany

Prati L.,University of Milan | Villa A.,University of Milan | Chan-Thaw C.E.,University of Milan | Arrigo R.,Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society | And 2 more authors.
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2011

Commercial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) modified in various ways at the surface have been used as supports for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in order to study their influence on the activity/selectivity of catalysts in the aqueous oxidation of alcohol. Particularly oxidative treatment was used to introduce carboxylic functionalities, whereas subsequent treatment with NH3 at different temperatures (473 K, 673 K and 873 K) produced N-containing groups leading to an enhancement of basic properties as the NH 3 treatment temperature was increased. The nature of the N-containing groups changed as the temperature increased, leading to an increase in the hydrophobicity of the support surface. Similar Au particle size and similar textural properties of the supports allowed the role of chemical surface groups in both the activity and the selectivity of the reaction of glycerol oxidation to be highlighted. An increase of basic functionalities produced a consistent increase in the activity of the catalyst, which was correlated to the promoting effect of the basic support in the alcoholate formation and the subsequent C-H bond cleavage. The selectivity towards primary oxidation products (C3 compounds) was the highest for the catalysts treated with NH3 at 873 K, which presented the most hydrophobic surface. The same trend in the catalyst activity has been obtained in the aqueous benzyl alcohol base-free oxidation. As in the case of glycerol, the increasing of basicity and/or hydrophobicity increased the consecutive reactions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Clemens O.,University of Birmingham | Clemens O.,TU Darmstadt | Clemens O.,Institute For Nanotechnologie | Berry F.J.,University of Birmingham | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Solid State Chemistry | Year: 2013

We report here a detailed study of the system La1-xSr xFeO3-xFx, by neutron powder diffraction- and magnetic-measurements. All the compounds are robust antiferromagnetics with ordering temperatures well above room temperature. Magnetic moments are shown to align parallel to the c-axis. FC-ZFC measurements indicate a small canting of the magnetic moments, resulting in a ferromagnetic component with a maximum for La0.5Sr0.5FeO2.5F0.5. We show that the system exhibits a composition-driven transition from a phase, for low fluorination levels (x≤0.5), with Pnma symmetry and the usual system of octahedral tiltings, to a phase with space group Imma for higher fluorine contents, where a correlated distortion of the oxygen octahedra plays a significant role. The consistency of the structural models, with respect to the expected continuity of the amplitudes of the different distortion modes and the invariance of their internal form, was monitored through the symmetry mode decomposition of the structures. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Laudenbach J.,TU Berlin | Hennrich F.,Institute For Nanotechnologie | Telg H.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Kappes M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Maultzsch J.,TU Berlin
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We present a resonance Raman study of the disorder-induced D mode in a sample highly enriched with semiconducting (9,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes in the excitation energy range of 1.49-2.05eV. The intensity of the D mode shows a resonance behavior near the optical transition of the (9,7) tube. The well-known dispersion of the D-mode frequency, on the other hand, is not observed at the resonance, but only above a certain excitation energy. We explain our results by numerical simulations of the D-mode spectra. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source

Longo P.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Schmitteckert P.,Institute For Nanotechnologie | Busch K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We present a detailed analysis of the dynamics of photon transport in waveguiding systems in the presence of a two-level system. In these systems, quantum interference effects generate a strong effective optical nonlinearity on the few-photon level. We clarify the relevant physical mechanisms through an appropriate quantum many-body approach. Based on this, we demonstrate that a single-particle photon-atom bound state with an energy outside the band can be excited via multiparticle scattering processes. We further show that these trapping effects are robust and, therefore, will be useful for the control of photon entanglement in solid-state based quantum-optical systems. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source

Tucker S.L.,John Innes Center | Besi M.I.,John Innes Center | Galhano R.,John Innes Center | Franceschetti M.,John Innes Center | And 4 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2010

Magnaporthe oryzae is the most important fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa). Under laboratory conditions, it is able to colonize both aerial and underground plant organs using different mechanisms. Here, we characterize an infection-related development in M. oryzae produced on hydrophilic polystyrene (PHIL-PS) and on roots. We show that fungal spores develop preinvasive hyphae (pre-IH) from hyphopodia (root penetration structures) or germ tubes and that pre-IH also enter root cells. Changes in fungal cell wall structure accompanying pre-IH are seen on both artificial and root surfaces. Using characterized mutants, we show that the PMK1 (for pathogenicity mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) pathway is required for pre-IH development. Twenty mutants with altered pre-IH differentiation on PHIL-PS identified from an insertional library of 2885 M. oryzae T-DNA transformants were found to be defective in pathogenicity. The phenotypic analysis of these mutants revealed that appressorium, hyphopodium, and pre-IH formation are genetically linked fungal developmental processes. We further characterized one of these mutants, M1373, which lacked the M. oryzae ortholog of exportin-5/Msn5p (EXP5). Mutants lacking EXP5 were much less virulent on roots, suggesting an important involvement of proteins and/or RNAs transported by EXP5 during M. oryzae root infection. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

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