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Mann S.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh | Erdin D.,Schweizerischer Bauernverband
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015

The difference between quality grades and quality labels is that the latter are awarded on the basis of production processes, whilst the former are conferred on the strength of the actual production results. In the course of a de-ideologisation of society, it might be assumed that the price differences between quality grades would grow larger and larger, while those between quality labels would tend to shrink. Regressions for the calf market on the one hand and for 4180 cattle-market datasets on the other largely confirm this pattern between 2000 and 2014. In the period under consideration, a price spread occurs between the individual grades of the CH-TAX system, whilst the surcharge for organic products shrinks. No price discrimination is identified a priori for ‘Terrasuisse’ and ‘QM’ labels. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved. Source

Lips M.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh | Hoop D.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015

Factors for calculating standard labour units (SLUs) are derived from cost/ performance calculations for paraagricultural activities found in business- management literature. The SLU factors specify the necessary labour input per CHF 10 000 of volume of sales or turnover, with three activity categories being distinguished. Leisure time and educational activities on the farm are highly labour-intensive, and can be described with the factor 0.15 SLU per CHF 10 000 gross output. Agritourism activities such as catering and the provision of overnight accommodation, as well as the provision of wood fuel and the boarding of horses constitute the second category, with a factor of 0.06. Practised by many farms, the third category of direct marketing and wage labour has an SLU factor of 0.03. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved. Source

Steiner B.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh | Keck M.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015

Generally speaking, cattle sheds are naturally ventilated buildings. Because of this, the situation is different on both the emission and impact sides than for animal housing with forced ventilation. This paper highlights methods contributing to the clarification of odour complaints. Using a case study, a process is explained with an analysis of the nuisance and site situation, the husbandry method and the management strategy. The emission situation is characterised by the individual sources in the categories «housing», «feed store» and «farmyard manure store», in combination with the operating approach. Of importance in terms of the residents’ perception of odour are the specific site, meteorological aspects, and additional emitters. In planning processes, particular care in the siting of animal housing systems is advisable owing to the potential impact on residents. To date, and where already existing sites, extended diffuse sources, natural ventilation, and – in particular – constellations with cold-air outflows are concerned, the starting points for odour reduction have been few in number. In the case of individual complaints, as holistic a methodological approach as possible helps us to take the odour complaints seriously and arrive at situation-appropriate solutions that are as amicable as possible. © 2015 A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved. Source

Holzkamper A.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh | Agroscope J.F.,Institute For Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaften Inh
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2015

The premise that global warming changes the conditions for crop production was investigated throughout Switzerland on the basis of a climate suitability for grain maize cultivation. Gridded projections1 of temperature changes for three time periods (2020-49, 2045-74, 2070-99) available from twenty climate-model chains for the A2 emissions scenario (i.e. the «business as usual» scenario) were used. It was found that with climate warming, the suitable production area increases at higher altitudes but decreases at lower altitudes in the longer term. In a second part of the study, we investigated the influence of individual climatic factors on climate suitability using combined temperature and precipitation scenarios from ten model chains for the Zurich-Reckenholz and Changins sites. Results suggest that heat stress and accelerated plant development are increasingly limiting climate suitability at both sites, whilst water shortage during maturation is only increasing significantly at the Changins site in western Switzerland. The shortening of growth phases also plays a role here, since the temporal shift in crop development can reduce the risk of drought stress if drought-sensitive phenological periods are shifted away from periods of most intense stress. Despite uncertainties with regard to long-term climate change, the results of this study can provide advice for the planning of possible climate change adaptation measures (i.e. future cultivar choice, shifts in production areas). © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved. Source

In the last few years, and since the abolition of the minimum exchange rate by the Swiss National Bank in January 2015, the Swiss franc has appreciated strongly against all currencies of Switzerland’s most important trading partners. With the help of empirical models, we analyse how strongly aggregate exports of the agri-food sector react to an appreciation of the Swiss franc. According to our analysis, a one-time appreciation of 1 % leads on average to a temporary decline in exports of approx. 0.8 % after four quarters. This lagged effect could be the result of long-term contracts and inert consumption habits. By contrast, a sustained appreciation in which the Swiss franc appreciates by 1 % each quarter leads on average to a permanent decrease in exports of approx. 0.9 % per quarter. The estimated exchange rate effects for agri-food exports are therefore of the same order of magnitude as those for aggregate Swiss exports. Hence, agri-food sector exports also prove remarkably resilient to exchange rate fluctuations. The reason for this may be that businesses in this sector are also able to successfully differentiate their products on the basis of quality, and hence are able – at least in part – to avoid price competition abroad. © 2015, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved. Source

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