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Egartner A.,Institute For Nachhaltige Pflanzenproduktion | Heimbach U.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Grabenweger G.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2012

Relative sampling methods, like sticky traps, are commonly used to monitor population fluctuations of flying insects, either to facilitate control decisions in integrated pest management or for evaluation of experimental insecticide treatments in efficacy testing, which is necessary before any authorisation of pesticides in Europe. Concerning the latter, however, trap results do not measure the direct effect of a treatment on a pest population. Rather, they show the activity of alive insects after treatment, which is influenced by the control measure together with many other factors. In the present study, we describe a field method to directly assess the mortality of adult western corn rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) after treatment of maize fields with an insecticide. Fields with continuous maize and heavy D. v. virgifera infestation were treated with a neonicotinoid insecticide and compared to untreated control fields. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed with yellow sticky traps and with a newly developed method for mortality assessment. The latter consisted of cotton panels mounted between the stems of maize plants, in order to collect dead beetles dropping from the plants beyond the covered area. After insecticide application, the number of dead beetles collected with these panels in the treated plots was significantly higher than those in the control plots only 1 day and 3 days after application. No significant differences were found 7, 14 and 21 days after application. At the same time and in the same fields, the number of beetles caught with yellow sticky traps dropped significantly after insecticide application. Differences between treated plots and control plots were significant 1, 3 and also 7 days after treatment. Results of yellow sticky traps therefore suggested longer persistence of the insecticide than proved by the direct mortality assessment with panels.

Kuch J.,University of Vienna | Cech T.L.,Institute For Waldschutz | Konrad H.,Institute For Waldgenetik | Bedlan G.,Institute For Nachhaltige Pflanzenproduktion
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2014

This is the first report of Diplodia mutila on Ligustrum vulgare. The pathogenicity of an isolate originating from privet was confirmed by inoculation tests. The pathogenicity tests were positive for Ligustrum vulgare 'Atrovirens', Prunus avium and Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd', but negative for Crataegus monogyna and Forsythia × intermedia. In vitro trials showed an optimum temperature for mycelial growth of 25°C for the isolate from privet.

Bedlan G.,Institute For Nachhaltige Pflanzenproduktion
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2012

In June 2010 the occurrence of the fungus Colletotrichum carthami comb. nov. (synonym Gloeosporium carthami (FUKUI) HORI et HEMMI (1919)) was first reported on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) for Austria. Infested fields which could be observed and those from these infection has been reported, showed nearly a totally yield loss.

In August 2010 Cylindrocladium yuccae and it's teleomorph Diaporthe gloriosa were found on living leaves of Yucca plants in a garden plot in Vienna. This is the first report for Austria of this fungus. A further finding originated from Lower Austria in April 2011. The affected plants were heavy damaged.

In the end of July 2011 Phyllosticta cucurbitacearum was found on fruits of Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca. This is the first report for Austria of this fungus on Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca.

In September 1999 the occurrence of Colletotrichum dematium, which causes a foliar disease on horseradish, is first reported for Austria. This report is also the first in recent years since the finding of this fungus by G. BRESADOLA in 1883.

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