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Pego-Reigosa J.M.,University of Vigo | Cobo-Ibanez T.,Sofia University | Calvo-Alen J.,Sierrallana Hospi Tal | Loza-Santamaria E.,Institute for Musculoskeletal Health | And 3 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2013

Objective To analyze the efficacy and safety of nonbiologic immunosuppressants in the treatment of nonrenal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods We conducted a sensitive literature search in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to October 2011. The selection criteria were studies including adult patients with SLE, a treatment intervention with nonbiologic immunosuppressants, a placebo or active comparator group, and outcome measures assessing efficacy and/or safety. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, clinical trials, and cohort studies were included. The quality of each study was evaluated using Jadad's scale and the Oxford Levels of Evidence. Results In total, 158 of the 2,827 initially found articles were selected for detailed review; 65 studies fulfilled the predetermined criteria. Overall, the studies were low quality, with only 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Cyclophosphamide demonstrated efficacy for neuropsychiatric SLE, preventing relapses with an additional steroid-sparing effect, although its use was associated with cumulative damage, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and ovarian failure. Other immunosuppressants (azathioprine, methotrexate, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporin A) demonstrated efficacy in reducing nonrenal activity and flares with a steroid-sparing effect, although only on occasion in non-placebo-controlled RCTs of small numbers of patients. Conclusion Several immunosuppressants demonstrated their safety and efficacy in nonrenal SLE. A specific drug for each particular manifestation cannot be recommended, although cyclophosphamide may be used in more severe cases, and methotrexate may be the first option in most cases of moderately active SLE. High-quality RCTs of larger numbers of patients are needed. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology. Source


Nishishinya M.B.,Instituto Traumatologico Quiron | Pereda C.A.,Clinica Mediterraneo | Munoz-Fernandez S.,Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia | Pego-Reigosa J.M.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Of Vigo | And 6 more authors.
Rheumatology International | Year: 2015

To identify risk and predictors of lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Articles were identified through a comprehensive search strategy in Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL. Studies had to investigate primary Sjögren syndrome patients, 18 years of age or older, with the goal of examining potential clinical, immunological and hematological risk factors for lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease. The quality of the studies was graded using the Oxford Levels of Evidence Scale. Whenever possible, the authors created evidence tables and performed meta-analysis. Of 900 studies identified, 18 were selected for inclusion. These studies provided data from over 15,000 patients (90 % female) for analysis. Lymphadenopathy, parotid enlargement, palpable purpura, low C4 serum levels and cryoglobulins were the most consistent non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma/lymphoproliferative disease predictors. Additionally, some of the studies identified splenomegaly, low C3 serum levels, lymphopenia and neutropenia as significant prognostic factors. The detection of germinal center-like lesions in primary Sjögren Syndrome diagnostic salivary biopsies was also proposed as highly predictive of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma. In contrast, anemia, anti-Ro, anti-La, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, male gender and hypergammaglobulinemia were not associated with lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease. Patients with primary Sjögren syndrome have an increased risk of lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease compared to the general population. Ascertaining relevant and reliable predictors in this patient population would greatly facilitate the identification of patients at elevated risk for closer monitoring in the context of limited resources. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014. Source


Nishishinya M.B.,Instituto Traumatologico Quiron | Pereda C.A.,Clinica Mediterraneo | Munoz-Fernandez S.,Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia | Pego-Reigosa J.M.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Of Vigo | And 6 more authors.
Rheumatology International | Year: 2014

To identify risk and predictors of lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Articles were identified through a comprehensive search strategy in Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL. Studies had to investigate primary Sjögren syndrome patients, 18 years of age or older, with the goal of examining potential clinical, immunological and hematological risk factors for lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease. The quality of the studies was graded using the Oxford Levels of Evidence Scale. Whenever possible, the authors created evidence tables and performed meta-analysis. Of 900 studies identified, 18 were selected for inclusion. These studies provided data from over 15,000 patients (90 % female) for analysis. Lymphadenopathy, parotid enlargement, palpable purpura, low C4 serum levels and cryoglobulins were the most consistent non-Hodgkińs lymphoma/lymphoproliferative disease predictors. Additionally, some of the studies identified splenomegaly, low C3 serum levels, lymphopenia and neutropenia as significant prognostic factors. The detection of germinal center-like lesions in primary Sjögren Syndrome diagnostic salivary biopsies was also proposed as highly predictive of non-Hodgkińs lymphoma. In contrast, anemia, anti-Ro, anti-La, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, male gender and hypergammaglobulinemia were not associated with lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease. Patients with primary Sjögren syndrome have an increased risk of lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disease compared to the general population. Ascertaining relevant and reliable predictors in this patient population would greatly facilitate the identification of patients at elevated risk for closer monitoring in the context of limited resources. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Silva-Fernandez L.,Hospital Universitario Of Guadalajara | Loza E.,Institute for Musculoskeletal Health | Martinez-Taboada V.M.,University of Cantabria | Blanco R.,University of Cantabria | And 3 more authors.
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2014

Objective: Relapses and failure are frequent in systemic vasculitis (SV) patients. Biological agents have been prescribed as rescue therapies. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the current evidence on the therapeutic use of biological agents for SV. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to the end of April 2013. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis, clinical trials, cohort studies, and case series with >3 patients were included. Independent article review and study quality assessment was done by 2 investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies. Results: Of 3447 citations, abstracts, and hand-searched studies screened, 90 were included. Most of the studies included ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients and only a few included large vessel vasculitis (LVV) patients. Rituximab was the most used agent, having demonstrated efficacy for remission induction in patients with AAV. A number of studies used different anti-TNFα agents with contrasting results. A few uncontrolled studies on the use of abatacept, alemtuzumab, mepolizumab, and tocilizumab were found. Conclusion: Current evidence on the use of biological therapies for SV is mainly based on uncontrolled, observational data. Rituximab is not inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV and might be superior in relapsing disease. Infliximab and adalimumab are effective as steroid-sparing agents. Etanercept is not effective to maintain remission in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and serious adverse events have been reported. For LVV, both infliximab and etanercept had a role as steroid-sparing agents, and tocilizumab might be effective also for remission induction in LVV. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Cobo-Ibanez T.,Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia | Loza-Santamaria E.,Institute for Musculoskeletal Health | Pego-Reigosa J.M.,Institute Investigacion Biomedica Of Vigo Ibiv | Marques A.O.,Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol | And 5 more authors.
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2015

Objective: To analyse the efficacy and safety of rituximab in the treatment of non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2013. The following were the selection criteria: (1) adult patients with SLE, (2) rituximab treatment, (3) placebo or active comparator, (4) outcome measures assessing efficacy and/or (5) safety. Meta-analysis, systematic literature reviews, randomised control trials (RCT), open clinical trials and cohort studies were included.Independent extraction of articles by 2 authors using predefined data fields was performed. The quality of each study was graded using the Oxford Levels of Evidence and Jadad's scale. Results: A total of 26 articles met our inclusion criteria: one RCT and its exploratory analysis, 2 open studies and 22 cohort studies, which analysed 1,231 patients. Overall, patients had active disease refractory to steroids and/or immunosuppressant drugs. Acceptable evidence suggested improvements in disease activity, arthritis, thrombocytopaenia, complement and anti-dsDNA, with a steroid-sparing effect. But relapses of disease were demonstrated too. Weak evidence suggested a response in anaemia, cutaneous and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Available evidence revealed few major adverse events. Studies had medium methodological quality and in general were applicable to current practice. Conclusion: Rituximab has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of non-renal SLE, especially in terms of disease activity, immunologic parameters and steroid-sparing effect. However, it can only be recommended for organ-specific manifestations such as arthritis and thrombocytopaenia. High-quality studies are needed in order to consider the long-term effects of re-treatment on different organ-specific manifestations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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