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Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg, Germany

Pedrolli D.B.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Nakanishi S.,Institute For Technische Mikrobiologie | Barile M.,University of Bari | Mansurova M.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The non-pathogenic Gram-positive soil bacterium Streptomyces davawensis synthesizes the riboflavin (vitamin B 2) analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin (AF). Both compounds are antibiotics. Notably, a number of other riboflavin analogs are currently under investigation with regard to the development of novel antiinfectives. As a first step towards understanding the metabolism of riboflavin analogs in humans, the key enzymes flavokinase (EC 2.7.1.26) and FAD synthetase (EC 2.7.7.2) were studied. Human flavokinase efficiently converted RoF and AF to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), respectively. Human FAD synthetase accepted RoFMN but not AFMN as a substrate. Consequently, roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD) was synthesized by the latter enzyme but not 8-demethyl-8-amino-riboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). The cofactor analogs RoFMN, AFMN and RoFAD have different physicochemical properties as compared to FMN and FAD. Thus, the cofactor analogs have the potential to render flavoenzymes inactive, which may negatively affect human metabolism. RoF, but not AF, was found to inhibit human flavokinase. In summary, we suggest that AF has a lower toxic potential and may be better suited as a lead structure to develop antimicrobial compounds. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Camacho Londono J.E.,University of Heidelberg | Camacho Londono J.E.,German Center for Cardiovascular Research | Tian Q.,Institute For Molekulare Zellbiologie | Hammer K.,Institute For Molekulare Zellbiologie | And 20 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2015

Aims Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major predictor for the development of cardiac diseases. It is associated with chronic neurohumoral stimulation and with altered cardiac Ca2+ signalling in cardiomyocytes. TRPC proteins form agonist-induced cation channels, but their functional role for Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes during fast cytosolic Ca2+ cycling and neurohumoral stimulation leading to hypertrophy is unknown. Methods and results In a systematic analysis of multiple knockout mice using fluorescence imaging of electrically paced adult ventricular cardiomyocytes and Mn2+-quench microfluorimetry, we identified a background Ca2+ entry (BGCE) pathway that critically depends on TRPC1/C4 proteins but not others such as TRPC3/C6. Reduction of BGCE in TRPC1/C4-deficient cardiomyocytes lowers diastolic and systolic Ca2+ concentrations both, under basal conditions and under neurohumoral stimulation without affecting cardiac contractility measured in isolated hearts and in vivo. Neurohumoral-induced cardiac hypertrophy as well as the expression of foetal genes (ANP, BNP) and genes regulated by Ca2+-dependent signalling (RCAN1-4, myomaxin) was reduced in TRPC1/C4 knockout (DKO), but not in TRPC1- or TRPC4-single knockout mice. Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis were both ameliorated in TRPC1/C4-DKO mice, whereas they did not show alterations in other cardiovascular parameters contributing to systemic neurohumoral-induced hypertrophy such as renin secretion and blood pressure. Conclusions The constitutively active TRPC1/C4-dependent BGCE fine-tunes Ca2+ cycling in beating adult cardiomyocytes. TRPC1/C4-gene inactivation protects against development of maladaptive cardiac remodelling without altering cardiac or extracardiac functions contributing to this pathogenesis. © Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source


Bandyopadhyay S.,University of Calcutta | Dey I.,University of Calcutta | Dey I.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | Suresh M.,University of Calcutta | And 2 more authors.
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2014

Progression into mitosis is a major point of regulation in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, and its proper control is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. Investigation of the G2/M progression event in S. pombe has revealed the existence of a complex regulatory process that is responsible for making the decision to enter mitosis. Newer aspects of this regulation are still being revealed. In this paper, we report the discovery of a novel mode of regulation of G2/M progression in S. pombe. We show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-regulated transcription factor Atf1 is a regulator of Cdc13 (mitotic cyclin) transcription and is therefore a prominent player in the regulation of mitosis in S. pombe. We have used genetic approaches to study the effect of overexpression or deletion of Atf1 on the cell length and G2/M progression of S. pombe cells. Our results clearly show that Atf1 overexpression accelerates mitosis, leading to an accumulation of cells with shorter lengths. The previously known major regulators of entry into mitosis are the Cdc25 phosphatase and the Wee1 kinase, which modulate cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. The significantly striking aspect of our discovery is that Atf1-mediated G2/M progression is independent of both Cdc25 and Wee1. We have shown that Atf1 binds to the Cdc13 promoter, leading to activation of Cdc13 expression. This leads to enhanced nuclear localization of CDK Cdc2, thereby promoting the G2/M transition. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Liao W.,Institute For Molekulare Zellbiologie | Elfrink K.,Institute For Molekulare Zellbiologie | Bahler M.,Institute For Molekulare Zellbiologie
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Mammalian myosin IXb (Myo9b) has been shown to exhibit unique motor properties in that it is a single-headed processive motor and the rate-limiting step in its chemical cycle is ATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, it has been reported to move toward the minus- and the plus-end of actin filaments. To analyze the contribution of the light chain-binding domain to the movement, processivity, and directionality of a single-headed processive myosin, we expressed constructs of Caenorhabditis elegans myosin IX (Myo9) containing either the head (Myo9-head) or the head and the light chain-binding domain (Myo9-head-4IQ). Both constructs supported actin filament gliding and moved toward the plus-end of actin filaments.Weidentified in the head of class IX myosins a calmodulin-binding site at the N terminus of loop 2 that is unique among the myosin superfamily members. Ca2+/calmodulin negatively regulated ATPase and motility of the Myo9-head. The Myo9-head demonstrated characteristics of a processive motor in that it supported actin filament gliding and pivoting at low motor densities. Quantum dot-labeled Myo9-head moved along actin filaments with a considerable run length and frequently paused without dissociating even in the presence of obstacles. We conclude that class IX myosins are plus-end-directed motors and that even a single head exhibits characteristics of a processive motor. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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