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Durnberger G.,Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology | Durnberger G.,Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP | Durnberger G.,Institute of Molecular Biotechnology IMBA | Camurdanoglu B.Z.,Medical University of Vienna | And 10 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2014

The development of the neuromuscular synapse depends on signaling processes that involve protein phosphorylation as a crucial regulatory event. Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is the key signaling molecule at the neuromuscular synapse whose activity is required for the formation of a mature and functional synapse. However, the signaling cascade downstream of MuSK and the regulation of the different components are still poorly understood. In this study we used a quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to study the phosphorylation events and their temporal regulation downstream of MuSK. We identified a total of 10,183 phosphopeptides, of which 203 were significantly up- or down-regulated. Regulated phosphopeptides were classified into four different clusters according to their temporal profiles. Within these clusters we found an overrepresentation of specific protein classes associated with different cellular functions. In particular, we found an enrichment of regulated phosphoproteins involved in posttranscriptional mechanisms and in cytoskeletal organization. These findings provide novel insights into the complex signaling network downstream of MuSK and form the basis for future mechanistic studies. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Wirnsberger G.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Zwolanek F.,Medical University of Vienna | Stadlmann J.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Stadlmann J.,Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP | And 17 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Neutrophils are key innate immune effector cells that are essential to fighting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here we report that mice carrying a hematopoietic lineage-specific deletion of Jagn1 (encoding Jagunal homolog 1) cannot mount an efficient neutrophil-dependent immune response to the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Global glycobiome analysis identified marked alterations in the glycosylation of proteins involved in cell adhesion and cytotoxicity in Jagn1-deficient neutrophils. Functional analysis confirmed marked defects in neutrophil migration in response to Candida albicans infection and impaired formation of cytotoxic granules, as well as defective myeloperoxidase release and killing of Candida albicans. Treatment with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protected mutant mice from increased weight loss and accelerated mortality after Candida albicans challenge. Notably, GM-CSF also restored the defective fungicidal activity of bone marrow cells from humans with JAGN1 mutations. These data directly identify Jagn1 (JAGN1 in humans) as a new regulator of neutrophil function in microbial pathogenesis and uncover a potential treatment option for humans.


Hasenbein S.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Meltzer M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Hauske P.,Chemical Genomics Center | Kaiser M.,Chemical Genomics Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The PDZ protease DegS senses mislocalized outer membrane proteins and initiates the sigmaE pathway in the bacterial periplasm. This unfolded protein response pathway is activated by processing of the anti-sigma factor RseA by DegS and other proteases acting downstream of DegS. DegS mediates the rate-limiting step of sigma E induction and its activity must be highly specific and tightly regulated. While DegS is structurally and biochemically well studied, the determinants of its pronounced substrate specificity are unknown. We therefore performed swapping experiments by introducing elements of the homologous but unspecific PDZ protease DegP. Introduction of loop L2 of DegP into DegS converted the enzyme into a non-specific protease, while swapping of PDZ domains did not. Therefore, loop L2 of the protease domain is a key determinant of substrate specificity. Interestingly, swapping of loop L2 did not affect the tight regulation of DegS. In addition, the combined introduction of loop L2 and PDZ domain 1 of DegP into DegS converted DegS even further into a DegP-like protease. These and other data suggest that homologous enzymes with distinct activities and regulatory features can be converted by simple genetic modifications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bathellier B.,Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP | Bathellier B.,University of Vienna | Steinmann T.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Barth F.G.,University of Vienna | Casas J.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2012

Using measurements based on particle image velocimetry in combination with a novel compact theoretical framework to describe hair mechanics, we found that spider and cricket air motion sensing hairs work close to the physical limit of sensitivity and energy transmission in a broad range of relatively high frequencies. In this range, the hairs closely follow the motion of the incoming flow because a minimum of energy is dissipated by forces acting in their basal articulation. This frequency band is located beyond the frequency at which the angular displacement of the hair is maximum which is between about 40 and 600 Hz, depending on hair length (Barth et al. [1] Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 340, 445-461 (doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0084)). Given that the magnitude of natural airborne signals is known to decrease with frequency, our results point towards the possible existence of spectral signatures in the higher frequency range that may be weak but of biological significance. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Schmidt A.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | Schmidt A.,Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP | Ammerer G.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | Mechtler K.,Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP | Mechtler K.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Proteomics | Year: 2013

Phospho-proteomic studies opened a broad view onto the main mechanisms of regulating cellular processes. Our recent discovery of a protein arginine kinase and its target in bacteria added a previously undescribed type of phosphorylation to control protein activity. Several challenges arise from large in vivo studies of this and other types of phosphorylations. The main factors impeding correct localization are low spectral quality, neutral loss of phosphoric acid, and gas-phase rearrangements, which have recently been described for phospho-serine, -threonine, and -tyrosine. Studies on histidine-phosphorylated peptides, a nitrogen-bound phosphorylation, also reported loss of phosphoric acid upon collision-induced dissociation. We were interested in studying the behaviour of arginine phosphorylation under different fragmentation conditions and its influence on site localization. First, we determined the percentage of false localizations obtained by three different search engines and a software tool dedicated for phospho-site determination. Next, we demonstrate that application of collisional activation for analysis of arginine-phosphorylated peptides leads to extensive elimination of phosphoric acid and increases the numbers of false localizations, while the modification is maintained on the arginine side chain upon electron-transfer dissociation. Furthermore, we also observed a rearrangement of the phosphorylation onto serine and glutamic acid side chains upon collisional activation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP and Medical University of Vienna
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance.


PubMed | Institute for Molecular Pathology IMP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface | Year: 2012

Using measurements based on particle image velocimetry in combination with a novel compact theoretical framework to describe hair mechanics, we found that spider and cricket air motion sensing hairs work close to the physical limit of sensitivity and energy transmission in a broad range of relatively high frequencies. In this range, the hairs closely follow the motion of the incoming flow because a minimum of energy is dissipated by forces acting in their basal articulation. This frequency band is located beyond the frequency at which the angular displacement of the hair is maximum which is between about 40 and 600 Hz, depending on hair length (Barth et al. [1] Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 340, 445-461 (doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0084)). Given that the magnitude of natural airborne signals is known to decrease with frequency, our results point towards the possible existence of spectral signatures in the higher frequency range that may be weak but of biological significance.

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