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Neumann B.,MitoCheck Project Group | Walter T.,MitoCheck Project Group | Heriche J.-K.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Heriche J.-K.,MitoCheck Project Group | And 30 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2010

Despite our rapidly growing knowledge about the human genome, we do not know all of the genes required for some of the most basic functions of life. To start to fill this gap we developed a high-throughput phenotypic screening platform combining potent gene silencing by RNA interference, time-lapse microscopy and computational image processing. We carried out a genome-wide phenotypic profiling of each of the ∼21,000 human protein-coding genes by two-day live imaging of fluorescently labelled chromosomes. Phenotypes were scored quantitatively by computational image processing, which allowed us to identify hundreds of human genes involved in diverse biological functions including cell division, migration and survival. As part of the Mitocheck consortium, this study provides an in-depth analysis of cell division phenotypes and makes the entire high-content data set available as a resource to the community. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Kriegsmann J.,MVZ for Histology | Kriegsmann J.,Institute for Molecular Pathology | Kriegsmann J.,Proteopath GbR | Kriegsmann M.,University of Heidelberg | Casadonte R.,Proteopath GbR
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2015

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

Morandell S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Morandell S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Grosstessner-Hain K.,Institute for Molecular Pathology | Roitinger E.,Institute for Molecular Pathology | And 10 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2010

Signaling networks regulate cellular responses to external stimuli through post-translational modifications such as protein phosphorylation. Phosphoproteomics facilitate the large-scale identification of kinase substrates. Yet, the characterization of critical connections within these networks and the identification of respective kinases remain the major analytical challenge. To address this problem, we present a novel approach for the identification of direct kinase substrates using chemical genetics in combination with quantitative phosphoproteomics. Quantitative identification of kinase substrates (QIKS) is a novel-screening platform developed for the proteome-wide substrate-analysis of specific kinases. Here, we aimed to identify substrates of mitogen-activated protein kinase/Erk kinase (Mek1), an essential kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. An ATP analog-sensitive mutant of Mek1 (Mek1-as) was incubated with a cell extract from Mek1 deficient cells. Phosphorylated proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS of IMAC-enriched phosphopeptides, labeled differentially for relative quantification. The identification of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 as the sole cytoplasmic substrates of MEK1 validates the applicability of this approach and suggests that QIKS could be used to identify substrates of a wide variety of kinases. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Majewski I.J.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Ritchie M.E.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Phipson B.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Corbin J.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | And 11 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors with a central role in the establishment and maintenance of gene expression patterns during development. We have investigated the role of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor populations. We show that mice with loss of function mutations in PRC2 components display enhanced HSC/progenitor population activity, whereas mutations that disrupt PRC1 or pleiohomeotic repressive complex are associated with HSC/progenitor cell defects. Because the hierarchical model of PRC action would predict synergistic effects of PRC1 and PRC2 mutation, these opposing effects suggest this model does not hold true in HSC/progenitor cells. To investigate the molecular targets of each complex in HSC/progenitor cells, we measured genome-wide expression changes associated with PRC deficiency, and identified transcriptional networks that are differentially regulated by PRC1 and PRC2. These studies provide new insights into the mechanistic interplay between distinct PRCs and have important implications for approaching PcG proteins as therapeutic targets. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

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