Kamp-Lintfort, Germany
Kamp-Lintfort, Germany

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Ordeig O.,Institute Microelectronica Of Barcelona Imb Cnm Csic | Ortiz P.,Institute Microelectronica Of Barcelona Imb Cnm Csic | Munoz-Berbel X.,Institute Microelectronica Of Barcelona Imb Cnm Csic | Demming S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | And 3 more authors.
2011 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, TRANSDUCERS'11 | Year: 2011

An integrated lab on a chip that enables simultaneous optical and electrochemical analysis working in continuous flow mode is presented. Both transducers are integrated into a single detection cell and operated simultaneously with no evidences of cross-talk and in agreement with theoretical predictions by Levich equation (electrochemical) and by Lambert-Beer law (absorbance). Their performance is demonstrated by continuous detection of lactate via a double enzymatic reaction with lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The consumption of the enzymatic reaction mediator (ferrocyanide, [Fe(CN) 6] 4) is recorded by amperometry, while the product (ferricyanide, [Fe(CN) 6] 3) is quantified by absorbance. The ability to quantify reagent and product simultaneously increases the robustness of the system by making it self-verifying, in addition to the inherent advantages of microfluidic devices. © 2011 IEEE.


De Pedro S.,CNM IMB CSIC Barcelona | Voigt A.,Microresist Technology GmbH | Cadarso V.J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Vila-Planas J.,CNM IMB CSIC Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2012

We present the characterization of dyed doped/modified Epocore resist (Microresist Technology, Germany) with three commercially-available dyes (Proquimac Color, Spain). After being doped with lilac, red and yellow dyes in a 1:2500 ratio (dye:Epocore, w:w), an exposure dose test was performed. The obtaining lithographic performance is similar to the non-doped Epocore. Hence, the inclusion of the dye does not affect either the absorbance in the UV range or the structurability of the polymer. In a second step, this polymer is used to define integrated absorbance filters, by using standard soft lithography techniques. Concretely, four different filter lengths have been fabricated. The highest absorbance value was found with filter length of 500 μm, with stop-bands at concrete regions of the visible spectra: -5.17 dB@592.0 nm for lilac dye, -3.30 dB@531.0 nm for red dye, and -4.40 dB@496.8 nm for yellow dye. Additionally, a non-zero passband penalty (-0.75 dB) in the red filter is observed. Moreover, bleaching of the filters was also tested by a continuous exposure to UV light. The doped polymer retains 96% of its filtering properties after a dose close to 40.000 J/cm 2. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


De Pedro S.,CNM IMB CSIC | Cadarso V.J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Munoz-Berbel X.,CNM IMB CSIC | Plaza J.A.,CNM IMB CSIC | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) | Year: 2013

This paper reports the implementation of magnetic variable optical attenuators (M-VOA) by soft lithography (SLT) and using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as constituent material. Two different fabrication protocols are used and compared. In the first case, a two-layer structure containing a clean PDMS layer on a magnetic PDMS (M-PDMS) layer is fabricated by SLT. M-PDMS is obtained by doping clean PDMS with different ferrofluid (FF) amounts. The second protocol consists of selectively dispensing droplets of FF by the inkjet printing technique (IPT) on a clean and non-cured PDMS structure previously defined by SLT. The optical and mechanical properties of structures fabricated using both protocols and containing similar ferrofluid amounts are compared. © 2013 IEEE.


Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Kuhlmann K.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
2011 IEEE 20th Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems, EPEPS-2011 | Year: 2011

In this paper we present an optimized interconnect structure which allows for the accurate broadband characterization of coplanar waveguides (CPWs) built in membrane technology. For both the membrane CPW and the silicon part of the interconnect structure, we compare measurements against calculations, and, where available, also against full-wave simulations. The agreement for the membrane CPW part is very good over a frequency range of 110 GHz. In addition, we detect a tangible sensitivity of the broadband propagation characteristics to the relative permittivity of the membrane material for both parts of the interconnect structure. © 2011 IEEE.


Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Kuhlmann K.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
Advances in Radio Science | Year: 2012

We present a transition from a contact structure built on highly-conductive silicon to a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fabricated in membrane technology. Test structures were fabricated and measured. The silicon-to-membrane transition is suitable for on-wafer probing and provides less than - 10 dB measured reflection in the frequency range from 1 to 110 GHz. Measured and calculated values of the propagation constant of the membrane CPW agree well in the entire frequency range. © 2012 Author(s).


Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
Advances in Radio Science | Year: 2011

In this work we compare on-wafer calibration standards fabricated in membrane technology with standards built in conventional thin-film technology. We perform this comparison by investigating the propagation of uncertainties in the geometry and material properties to the broadband electrical properties of the standards. For coplanar waveguides used as line standards the analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations demonstrates an up to tenfold reduction in uncertainty depending on the electromagnetic waveguide property we look at. © 2011 Author(s) CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
76th ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference: Millimeter-Wave Measurements and Modeling, ARFTG 2010 | Year: 2010

In this paper we discuss the advantages of on-wafer calibration standards fabricated in membrane technology in comparison to standards built in conventional thin-film technology. Based on Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the propagation of uncertainties in the geometry and material properties to the broadband electrical properties of the standards. For coplanar waveguides used as line standards we demonstrate that, depending on the electromagnetic waveguide property we look at, an up to tenfold reduction in uncertainty can be achieved. ©2010 IEEE.


Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Kuhlmann K.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
2011 IEEE 15th Workshop on Signal Propagation on Interconnects, SPI 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

In this paper we present a simple extension to a well-known analytical model for coplanar waveguides (CPWs) on conventional substrates that enables us to calculate the broadband electromagnetic properties of CPWs built in membrane technology. We demonstrate the accuracy of the analytical model by comparing to measurements and numerical simulations for frequencies up to 110 GHz. © 2011 IEEE.


Arz U.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Rohland M.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Kuhlmann K.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Buttgenbach S.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
2012 IEEE 16th Workshop on Signal and Power Integrity, SPI 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012

In this paper we characterize broadband low-loss interconnects built in membrane technology on highly-resistive silicon (HRSi) substrates. Test structures were fabricated and measured in a frequency range from 0.1 to 110 GHz. The measured propagation constant of the membrane CPW part of the interconnect agrees well with analytical calculations in the entire frequency band. © 2012 IEEE.


Niesel T.,Institute For Mikrotechnik | Dietzel A.,Institute For Mikrotechnik
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

A new concept for the realization of a micro optical laser gyroscope was developed. It allows minimization of the influence of alignment errors by the use of double mirrors. As a consequence, the performance of a ring resonator structure is less vulnerable to micro assembly tolerances. The idea being pursued to improve the design robustness is based on the use of double mirror elements in which the angle between the two mirrors is intrinsically defined by silicon crystalline structure. With an angle of 120° between the mirrors the resulting reflection direction from each double mirror element is robust against deviations from ideal incidence angle. Here, the optical distortions due to rotational misalignments of double mirror elements that occur either during assembly or during operation due to thermal stresses are extremely low and can be determined after production and compensated. After describing the free space ring resonator concept all major processing and manufacturing steps of the double mirror elements are discussed. For the fabrication of these mirrors silicon wafers are used which are almost in (100) orientation but are tilted by 5.3° in <011> direction and, therefore, provide an etching facet with a slope of 60° by KOH wet chemical etching. A 33% KOH solution with addition of isopropanol is used to obtain more uniform and smooth facet surfaces. Two wafers structured in such way are connected by silicon direct bonding and then cut into small mirror elements which are mounted onto the gyroscope micro platform. © 2014 SPIE.

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