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Hill M.,Arizona State University | Calhoun R.,Arizona State University | Fernando H.J.S.,Arizona State University | Wieser A.,Institute For Meteorologie Und Klimaforschung | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2010

Dual-Doppler analysis of data from two coherent lidars during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) allows the retrieval of flow structures, such as vortices, during mountain-wave events. The spatial and temporal resolution of this approach is sufficient to identify and track vortical motions on an elevated, cross-barrier plane in clear air. Assimilation routines or additional constraints such as two-dimensional continuity are not required. A relatively simple and quick least squares method forms the basis of the re-trieval. Vortices are shown to evolve and advect in the flow field, allowing analysis of their behavior in the mountain-wave-boundary layer system. The locations, magnitudes, and evolution of the vortices can be studied through calculated fields of velocity, vorticity, streamlines, and swirl. Generally, observations suggest two classes of vortical motions: rotors and small-scale vortical structures. These two structures differ in scale and behavior. The level of coordination of the two lidars and the nature of the output (i.e., in range gates) creates inherent restrictions on the spatial and temporal resolution of retrieved fields. © 2010 American Meteorological Society. Source

Dickinson C.,York University | Komguem L.,York University | Whiteway J.A.,York University | Illnicki M.,York University | And 4 more authors.
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2011

The LIDAR instrument operating from the surface of Mars on the Phoenix Mission measured vertical profiles of atmospheric dust and water ice clouds at temperatures around -65 °C. An equivalent lidar system was utilized for measurements in the atmosphere of Earth where dust and cloud conditions are similar to Mars. Coordinated aircraft in situ sampling provided a verification of lidar measurement and analysis methods and also insight for interpretation of lidar derived optical parameters in terms of the dust and cloud microphysical properties. It was found that the vertical distribution of airborne dust above the Australian desert is quite similar to what is observed in the planetary boundary layer above Mars. Comparison with the in situ sampling is used to demonstrate how the lidar derived optical extinction coefficient is related to the dust particle size distribution. The lidar measurement placed a constraint on the model size distribution that has been used for Mars. Airborne lidar measurements were also conducted to study cirrus clouds that form in the Earth's atmosphere at a similar temperature and humidity as the clouds observed with the lidar on Mars. Comparison with the in situ sampling provides a method to derive the cloud ice water content (IWC) from the Mars lidar measurements. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kohler M.,Institute For Meteorologie Und Klimaforschung | Kalthoff N.,Institute For Meteorologie Und Klimaforschung | Kottmeier C.,Institute For Meteorologie Und Klimaforschung
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

Within the framework of the AMMA campaign in 2006, the response of surface properties to precipitation and their effect on the state of the convective boundary layer (CBL) and on convective instability were analysed. The observation periods covered the pre-monsoon onset (SOP 1) and the mature monsoon phase (SOP 2) and were performed in southwest Burkina Faso. Precipitation caused a distinctive increase in the volumetric soil moisture content in the upper 20 cm of the soil. Coupled with the increase in soil moisture, a continuous decrease of surface and soil temperature with time was observed. Changes in surface temperature, albedo, and a higher availability of water affected the partitioning of the energy balance. Highest values of the Bowen ratio were found during SOP 1 when the surface was dry and vegetation sparse. In SOP 2, a higher vegetation cover made the albedo and Bowen ratio less sensitive to changes in soil moisture. Modifications of surface fluxes influenced the CBL conditions. The CBL height in SOP 1 was 1658 m and in SOP 2 877 m. The heat budget of the CBL was dominated by sensible heat flux convergence, whereas the moisture budget was controlled by both advection and latent heat flux convergence. It was confirmed by the measurements that the diurnal development of convective instability was dominated by the CBL evolution and controlled by changes in the mid- or upper troposphere to a minor degree only. Linear correlations were found between the near-surface equivalent potential temperature and both convective available potential energy and convection index. © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

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