Orend J.,Institute for Metallurgy |
Orend J.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH |
Hagemann F.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH |
Klose F.B.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH |
And 3 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2015
Recrystallization during hot rolling of steel and the developing austenite grain size play an essential role for the phase transformation during cooling and the resulting mechanical properties. Thus, many models for recrystallization were developed in the past decades. While constitutive models are still state-of-the-art for online process control, mesoscale models with a spatial representation of the microstructure can provide better predictive capabilities at the cost of long computation times. To fill this gap a new approach based on modeling the interaction of an ensemble of multiple grains is proposed. Simulation results with this new model are in good agreement with results from experiments with a heat treatable 42CrMo4 steel. It is shown that the model can also describe the behavior under transient conditions known from experimental investigations and cellular automata models. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source
Zdonek B.,Institute for Metallurgy |
Szypula I.,Institute for Metallurgy |
Kozlowski J.,Hsw Huta Stali Jakosciowych Sp. Z O.O. |
Szczech S.,Hsw Huta Stali Jakosciowych Sp. Z O.O.
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | Year: 2012
Steelmaking and secondary refining process technology of resulphurized liquid steel with low content of total oxygen, assigned for continuous casting of strands for rolled and forged products for automotive industry was developed. The influence of secondary steel refining parameters on total oxygen content as well as amount and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was examined. It was found, that content of total oxygen and amount of non-metallic inclusions in steel decrease as steel refining time in the ladle becomes longer, and the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions in steel changes from modified calcium aluminates to spinel inclusion of CaO•Al2O 3•MgO type. The total oxygen content in steel from continuous casting in four cast sequence ranged from 6 to 25 ppm, with percentage share of non-metallic inclusions from 0.09 to 0.30 per cent and equivalent diameter 0.78 to 1.59 μm. Source