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Goroka, Papua New Guinea

Tee E.-S.,Institute for Medical Research
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages. Source

Rafiza S.,Institute for Medical Research | Rampal K.G.,National University of Malaysia | Tahir A.,Institute for Public Health
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.Results: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.Conclusion: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor. © 2011 Rafiza et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mohamed A.F.,Uppsala University | Mohamed A.F.,Institute for Medical Research | Cars O.,Uppsala University | Friberg L.E.,Uppsala University
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Objectives: An optimized dosing regimen of the prodrug of colistin, colistin methanesulphonate (CMS), against resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is needed to ensure effective bacterial killing. The objectives of this studywere to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model that characterizes the time course of the antibacterial activity of colistin against P. aeruginosa in a static in vitro system and to perform simulations of different dosing regimens and dosing algorithms to evaluate the effect of interindividual variability and interoccasion variability in PK on bacterial killing. Methods: Static in vitro time-kill curve experiments were conducted on two different strains of P. aeruginosa (MIC 1 and 1.5 mg/L). Mechanism-based PK/PD models were fitted in NONMEM7 and the final model was combined with a previously developed population PK model of CMS and colistin to perform simulations of variability based on different dosing algorithms. Results: A model with compartments for growing and resting bacteria, with a function allowing the maximal bacterial killing of colistin to reduce upon increasing colistin exposure, characterized both the fast bactericidal effect and the adaptive resistance. The variability in PK was shown to translate into pronounced interoccasion variability in bacterial killing. A flat fixed loading dose was demonstrated to result in less variability than an algorithm based on weight. Conclusions: The developed PK/PD model described the growth, death and resistance development of P. aeruginosa in response to colistin for two different strains. Based on simulations, a flat fixed loading dose followed by an 8 or 12 hourly maintenance dose with an infusion duration of up to 2 h appeared adequate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Rashed A.A.,Institute for Medical Research
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health

It has been well documented that bioavailability of iron is influenced by other food constituents. We carried out a kinetic study to look at the effect of zinc on ferric iron uptake in human epithelial Caco-2 TC7 cell-line. Zinc reduced iron uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. Iron uptake was significantly increased in the presence of ascorbic acid in the medium. We also found that zinc significantly increased the main iron transporter Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in whole cell and membrane proteins. The evidence from in vitro studies show that zinc suppressed iron uptake by Caco-2 cells and this phenomenon could be reversed by the presence of ascorbic acid in the growth media. Source

A one year study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spray application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), strain AM65-52 on vector populations and dengue transmission in a dengue endemic state in Malaysia. Residential sites with similar populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse were studied. One site was treated with spray application of Bti into all outdoor target vector habitats, which consisted of natural and artificial containers. The other site was not treated. The impact of spray application was measured with an indoor and outdoor ovitrap index (OI) and epidemiologic data. Significant reductions in both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, OI were observed both indoors and outdoors, in treated sites compared to untreated sites (p < 0.05). OI reduction was achieved over time in the treated area. The OI was suppressed to below 10%. This was maintained for 4 weeks into the post-treatment phase. The outdoor OI at the untreated site remained at more than 40% for 38 weeks during the evaluation period. One dengue case occurred at the Bti treatment site at the beginning of the treatment phase, but no further cases were detected during the remainder of the treatment phase. However, there was an ongoing dengue outbreak in the untreated area with 15 serologically confirmed cases during weeks 37-54. Intensive fogging operations with pyrethroids at the untreated (Bti) site had a positive impact on Ae. albopictus, but not on Ae. aegypti. Source

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