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Olbermann P.,Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology | Olbermann P.,University of Wurzburg | Josenhans C.,Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology | Moodley Y.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2010

The Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) encodes a type IV secretion system. Humans infected with cagPAI-carrying H. pylori are at increased risk for sequelae such as gastric cancer. Housekeeping genes in H. pylori show considerable genetic diversity; but the diversity of virulence factors such as the cagPAI, which transports the bacterial oncogene CagA into host cells, has not been systematically investigated. Here we compared the complete cagPAI sequences for 38 representative isolates from all known H. pylori biogeographic populations. Their gene content and gene order were highly conserved. The phylogeny of most cagPAI genes was similar to that of housekeeping genes, indicating that the cagPAI was probably acquired only once by H. pylori, and its genetic diversity reflects the isolation by distance that has shaped this bacterial species since modern humans migrated out of Africa. Most isolates induced IL-8 release in gastric epithelial cells, indicating that the function of the Cag secretion system has been conserved despite some genetic rearrangements. More than one third of cagPAI genes, in particular those encoding cell-surface exposed proteins, showed signatures of diversifying (Darwinian) selection at more than 5% of codons. Several unknown gene products predicted to be under Darwinian selection are also likely to be secreted proteins (e.g. HP0522, HP0535). One of these, HP0535, is predicted to code for either a new secreted candidate effector protein or a protein which interacts with CagA because it contains two genetic lineages, similar to cagA. Our study provides a resource that can guide future research on the biological roles and host interactions of cagPAI proteins, including several whose function is still unknown.© 2010 Olbermann et al. Source


Bode-Janisch S.,Institute of Legal Medicine | Schutz S.,Institute of Legal Medicine | Schmidt A.,Institute of Pathology | Tschernig T.,Saarland University | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International | Year: 2013

Procalcitonin is regarded as a valuable marker for sepsis in living persons and even in post-mortem investigations. At the Institute of Legal Medicine, 25 autopsy cases with suspected bacterial infectious diseases or sepsis were examined using the semi-quantitative PCT-Q®-test (B.R.A.H.M.S., Germany) in 2010 and 2011. As controls, 75 cadavers were used for which there was no suspicion of a bacterial infectious disease or sepsis. Femoral blood was cultured from the cases and from controls, and samples from the brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys were examined histologically for findings seen in sepsis. Twelve cases in the sepsis/infectious disease group (48%) were classifiable as sepsis following synopsis of PCT levels, autopsy results, and histopathological and microbiological findings. This study shows that the semi-quantitative PCT-Q®-test is a useful supplementary marker in routine autopsy investigations, capable of classifying death as due to sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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