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Bielig H.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | Lautz K.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | Braun P.R.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Braun P.R.,Steinbeis Innovationszentrum Center for Systems Biomedicine | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

NOD1 is an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor that contributes to anti-bacterial innate immune responses, adaptive immunity and tissue homeostasis. NOD1-induced signaling relies on actin remodeling, however, the details of the connection of NOD1 and the actin cytoskeleton remained elusive. Here, we identified in a druggable-genome wide siRNA screen the cofilin phosphatase SSH1 as a specific and essential component of the NOD1 pathway. We show that depletion of SSH1 impaired pathogen induced NOD1 signaling evident from diminished NF-κB activation and cytokine release. Chemical inhibition of actin polymerization using cytochalasin D rescued the loss of SSH1. We further demonstrate that NOD1 directly interacted with SSH1 at F-actin rich sites. Finally, we show that enhanced cofilin activity is intimately linked to NOD1 signaling. Our data thus provide evidence that NOD1 requires the SSH1/cofilin network for signaling and to detect bacterial induced changes in actin dynamics leading to NF-κB activation and innate immune responses. © 2014 Bielig et al.


Pfaller M.A.,University of Iowa | Diekema D.J.,University of Iowa | Gibbs D.L.,Giles Scientific Inc. | Newell V.A.,Giles Scientific Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time periods 1997 to 2000 and 2005 to 2007 were compared. Investigators tested clinical isolates of Candida spp. by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method. Overall, 90.2% of Candida isolates tested were susceptible (S) to fluconazole; however, 13 of 31 species identified exhibited decreased susceptibility (<75% S), similar to that seen with the resistant (R) species C. glabrata and C. krusei. Among 197,619 isolates of Candida spp. tested against voriconazole, 95.0% were S and 3% were R. About 30% of fluconazole-R isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. rugosa, C. lipolytica, C. pelliculosa, C. apícola, C. haemulonii, C. humicola, C. lambica, and C. ciferrii remained S to voriconazole. An increase in fluconazole resistance over time was seen with C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sake, and C. pelliculosa. Among the emerging fluconazole-R species were C. guilliermondii (11.4% R), C. inconspicua (53.2% R), C. rugosa (41.8% R), and C. norvegensis (40.7% R). The rates of isolation of C. rugosa, C. inconspicua, and C. norvegensis increased by 5- to 10-fold over the 10.5-year study period. C. guilliermondii and C. rugosa were most prominent in Latin America, whereas C. inconspicua and C. norvegensis were most common in Eastern European countries. This survey identifies several less-common species of Candida with decreased susceptibility to azoles. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and accurate species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Rynes J.,University of Cologne | Rynes J.,University of South Bohemia | Donohoe C.D.,University of Cologne | Frommolt P.,Cologne Center for Genomics | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2012

Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.


Hauer K.,Childrens Cancer Research Center | Calzada-Wack J.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Steiger K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Grunewald T.G.P.,Childrens Cancer Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Ewing sarcoma, an osteolytic malignancy that mainly affects children and young adults, is characterized by early metastasis to lung and bone. In this study, we identified the pro-metastatic gene DKK2 as a highly overexpressed gene in Ewing sarcoma compared with corresponding normal tissues. Using RNA interference, we showed that DKK2 was critical for malignant cell outgrowth in vitro and in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model in vivo. Analysis of invasion potential in both settings revealed a strong correlation of DKK2 expression to Ewing sarcoma invasiveness that may be mediated by the DKK effector matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Furthermore, gene expression analyses established the ability of DKK2 to differentially regulate genes such as CXCR4, PTHrP, RUNX2, and TGFb1 that are associated with homing, invasion, and growth of cancer cells in bone tissue as well as genes important for osteolysis, including HIF1a, JAG1, IL6, and VEGF. DKK2 promoted bone infiltration and osteolysis in vivo and further analyses defined DKK2 as a key factor in osteotropic malignancy. Interestingly, in Ewing sarcoma cells, DKK2 suppression simultaneously increased the potential for neuronal differentiation while decreasing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Our results provide strong evidence that DKK2 is a key player in Ewing sarcoma invasion and osteolysis and also in the differential phenotype of Ewing sarcoma cells. © 2012 AACR.


PubMed | University of Stuttgart, Institute Pasteur Paris, Institute for Medical Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology and University of Hohenheim
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS pathogens | Year: 2014

NOD1 is an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor that contributes to anti-bacterial innate immune responses, adaptive immunity and tissue homeostasis. NOD1-induced signaling relies on actin remodeling, however, the details of the connection of NOD1 and the actin cytoskeleton remained elusive. Here, we identified in a druggable-genome wide siRNA screen the cofilin phosphatase SSH1 as a specific and essential component of the NOD1 pathway. We show that depletion of SSH1 impaired pathogen induced NOD1 signaling evident from diminished NF-B activation and cytokine release. Chemical inhibition of actin polymerization using cytochalasin D rescued the loss of SSH1. We further demonstrate that NOD1 directly interacted with SSH1 at F-actin rich sites. Finally, we show that enhanced cofilin activity is intimately linked to NOD1 signaling. Our data thus provide evidence that NOD1 requires the SSH1/cofilin network for signaling and to detect bacterial induced changes in actin dynamics leading to NF-B activation and innate immune responses.


Naess H.,University of Bergen | Glad S.,University of Bergen | Storstein A.,University of Bergen | Rinaldo C.H.,University of Tromsø | And 3 more authors.
BMC Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: To report the clinical course of PML in an apparently immunocompetent patient treated with cidofovir.Case Presentation: A 35-year-old immunocompetent man who developed progressive hemianopsia, aphasia, and limb weakness underwent repeated MRI scans of the brain, spinal fluid analyses, and brain biopsy. Before diagnosis was established based on brain biopsy, he was consecutively treated with methylprednisolone, acyclovir, ceftriaxone and plasmapheresis, but he deteriorated rapidly suggestive of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). He started to recover two weeks after the initiation of treatment with cidofovir and has had no relapse at 3 1/2 years of follow-up. MRI has shown marked improvement.Conclusions: PML should be considered in immunocompetent patients with a typical clinical course and MRI findings compatible with PML. Treatment with cidofovir should be considered as early as possible in the disease course. © 2010 Naess et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | CSIC - Biological Research Center, Justus Liebig University, Institute for Medical Microbiology, Health Science University and University of Greifswald
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2014

Microbial infections can induce aberrant responses in cellular stress pathways, leading to translational attenuation, metabolic restriction, and activation of oxidative stress, with detrimental effects on cell survival. Here we show that infection of human airway epithelial cells with Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, activation of mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and regulation of their respective target genes. We identify pneumococcal H2O2 as the causative agent for these responses, as both catalase-treated and pyruvate oxidase-deficient bacteria lacked these activities. Pneumococcal H2O2 induced nuclear NF-B translocation and transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of translational arrest and ER stress by salubrinal or of MAPK signaling pathways attenuate cytokine transcription. These results provide strong evidence for the notion that inhibition of translation is an important host pathway in monitoring harmful pathogen-associated activities, thereby enabling differentiation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria.


Brinkmann K.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | Hombach A.,University of Cologne | Seeger J.M.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | Wagner-Stippich D.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | And 4 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2014

Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer, and represents an important mechanism of how tumor cells resist immune cell destruction. Mitochondria are the central regulators of the apoptotic machinery by releasing pro-Apoptotic factors including cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) upon mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Small molecules activating MOMP such as BH3 mimetics or antagonizers of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) such as SMAC mimetics have recently engendered new optimism for a more individualized and effective cancer therapy. Here we show that a SMAC mimetic potentiates cancer cell killing by natural killer (NK) cells through reactivation of tumor cell apoptosis. Specifically, the SMAC mimetic enhances the susceptibility of tumor cells toward NK cell-mediated effector mechanisms involving death receptors and cytolytic granules containing perforin and granzymes by relieving caspase activity. Our data highlight for the first time the specific use of SMAC mimetics for boosting immune cell-mediated immunotherapy, representing a novel and promising approach in the treatment of cancer. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich and Institute for Medical Microbiology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The Cag Type IV secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in H. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein CagL of the Cag secretion system. Characterizing the CagL mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells and transport the effector CagA was reduced to different extents. We identified three novel regions of the CagL protein, involved in its structural integrity, its possible interaction with the CagPAI T4SS pilus protein CagI, and in its binding to integrins and other host cell ligands. In particular two novel variable CagL motifs were involved in integrin binding, TSPSA, and TASLI, which is located opposite of its integrin binding motif RGD. We thereby defined functionally important subdomains within the CagL structure, which can be used to clarify CagL contributions in the context of other CagPAI proteins or for inhibition of the CagT4SS. This structure-function correlation of CagL domains can also be instructive for the functional characterization of other potential VirB5 orthologs whose structure is not yet known.


Huber S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hoffmann R.,Institute for Medical Microbiology | Muskens F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Voehringer D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Blood | Year: 2010

Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) accumulate in tissues during Th2-associated immune responses like helminth infections and allergic disorders. These cells differentiate in response to interleukin 4 (IL-4)/IL-13-mediated activation of Stat6 and possess potent inhibitory activity against T cells. The molecular mechanism that leads to T-cell suppression remains unclear and could involve soluble factors or inhibitory ligands. Microarray analysis revealed that the inhibitory ligand, programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) was strongly induced by IL-4 in macrophages from wild-type but not Stat6-deficient mice. PD-L2 expression correlated with other established markers for AAM-like Relm-α/Fizz1, arginase1, or Ym1 and thereby serves as useful surface marker to identify and isolate AAM from tissues. Antibodies against PD-L2 blocked the inhibitory activity of AAM and retroviral expression of PD-L2 in macrophages from Stat6 -/- mice was sufficient to inhibit T-cell proliferation, which demonstrates that PD-L2 mediates potent and nonredundant inhibition of T cells independently of other Stat6-regulated genes. Infection of conditional IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis further showed that PD-L2 expression was dependent on IL-4/IL-13 from Th2 cells. In vivo blockade of PD-L2 during N brasiliensis infection caused an enhanced Th2 response in the lung, indicating that AAM inhibit Th2 cells by expression of PD-L2. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

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