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Leushacke M.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Ng A.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Galle J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Loeffler M.,Institute for Medical Informatics | And 3 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2013

The pyloric epithelium continuously self-renews throughout life, driven by limited reservoirs of resident Lgr5+ adult stem cells. Here, we characterize the population dynamics of these stem cells during epithelial homeostasis. Using a clonal fate-mapping strategy, we demonstrate that multiple Lgr5+ cells routinely contribute to epithelial renewal in the pyloric gland and, similar to what was previously observed in the intestine, a balanced homeostasis of the glandular epithelium and stem cell pools is predominantly achieved via neutral competition between symmetrically dividing Lgr5+ stem cells. Additionally, we document a lateral expansion of stem cell clones via gland fission under nondamage conditions. These findings represent a major advance in our basic understanding of tissue homeostasis in the stomach and form the foundation for identifying altered stem cell behavior during gastric disease Source


Herbst A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Jurinovic V.,Institute for Medical Informatics | Krebs S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Thieme S.E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a hallmark of the majority of sporadic forms of colorectal cancer and results in increased stability of the protein β-catenin. β-catenin is then shuttled into the nucleus where it activates the transcription of its target genes, including the proto-oncogenes MYC and CCND1 as well as the genes encoding the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins ASCL2 and ITF-2B. To identify genes commonly regulated by β-catenin in colorectal cancer cell lines, we analyzed β-catenin target gene expression in two non-isogenic cell lines, DLD1 and SW480, using DNA microarrays and compared these genes to β-catenin target genes published in the PubMed database and DNA microarray data presented in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database.Results: Treatment of DLD1 and SW480 cells with β-catenin siRNA resulted in differential expression of 1501 and 2389 genes, respectively. 335 of these genes were regulated in the same direction in both cell lines. Comparison of these data with published β-catenin target genes for the colon carcinoma cell line LS174T revealed 193 genes that are regulated similarly in all three cell lines. The overlapping gene set includes confirmed β-catenin target genes like AXIN2, MYC, and ASCL2. We also identified 11 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways that are regulated similarly in DLD1 and SW480 cells and one pathway - the steroid biosynthesis pathway - was regulated in all three cell lines.Conclusions: Based on the large number of potential β-catenin target genes found to be similarly regulated in DLD1, SW480 and LS174T cells as well as the large overlap with confirmed β-catenin target genes, we conclude that DLD1 and SW480 colon carcinoma cell lines are suitable model systems to study Wnt/β-catenin signaling and associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the confirmed and the newly identified potential β-catenin target genes are useful starting points for further studies. © 2014 Herbst et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Braun M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Brandt A.U.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Schulz S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schulz S.,Institute for Medical Informatics | Boeker M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making | Year: 2014

Background: Numerous information models for electronic health records, such as openEHR archetypes are available. The quality of such clinical models is important to guarantee standardised semantics and to facilitate their interoperability. However, validation aspects are not regarded sufficiently yet. The objective of this report is to investigate the feasibility of archetype development and its community-based validation process, presuming that this review process is a practical way to ensure high-quality information models amending the formal reference model definitions. Methods. A standard archetype development approach was applied on a case set of three clinical tests for multiple sclerosis assessment: After an analysis of the tests, the obtained data elements were organised and structured. The appropriate archetype class was selected and the data elements were implemented in an iterative refinement process. Clinical and information modelling experts validated the models in a structured review process. Results: Four new archetypes were developed and publicly deployed in the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Manager, an online platform provided by the openEHR Foundation. Afterwards, these four archetypes were validated by domain experts in a team review. The review was a formalised process, organised in the Clinical Knowledge Manager. Both, development and review process turned out to be time-consuming tasks, mostly due to difficult selection processes between alternative modelling approaches. The archetype review was a straightforward team process with the goal to validate archetypes pragmatically. Conclusions: The quality of medical information models is crucial to guarantee standardised semantic representation in order to improve interoperability. The validation process is a practical way to better harmonise models that diverge due to necessary flexibility left open by the underlying formal reference model definitions.This case study provides evidence that both community- and tool-enabled review processes, structured in the Clinical Knowledge Manager, ensure archetype quality. It offers a pragmatic but feasible way to reduce variation in the representation of clinical information models towards a more unified and interoperable model. © 2014Braun et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Halle C.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | Andersen E.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | Lando M.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | Aarnes E.-K.,Norwegian Radium Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Knowledge of the molecular background of functional magnetic resonance (MR) images is required to fully exploit their potential in cancer management. We explored the prognostic impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters in cervical cancer combined with global gene expression data to reveal their underlying molecular phenotype and construct a representative gene signature for the relevant parameter. On the basis of 78 patients with cervical cancer subjected to curative chemoradiotherapy, we identi fied the prognostic DCE-MRI parameter ABrix by pharmacokinetic analysis of pretreatment images based on the Brix model, in which tumors with low ABrix appeared to be most aggressive. Gene set analysis of 46 tumors with pairwise DCE-MRI and gene expression data showed a significant correlation between A Brix and the hypoxia gene sets, whereas gene sets related to other tumor phenotypes were not significant. Hypoxia gene sets speci fic for cervical cancer created in cell culture experiments, including both targets of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1α) and the unfolded protein response, were the most significant. In the remaining 32 tumors, low ABrix was associated with upregulation of HIF1α protein expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, consistent with increased hypoxia. On the basis of the hypoxia gene sets, a signature of 31 genes that were upregulated in tumors with low ABrix was constructed. This DCE-MRI hypoxia gene signature showed prognostic impact in an independent validation cohort of 109 patients. Our findings reveal the molecular basis of an aggressive hypoxic phenotype and suggest the use of DCE-MRI to noninvasively identify patients with hypoxia-related chemoradioresistance. ©2012 AACR. Source


Patent
Institute For Medical Informatics | Date: 2011-06-02

A method and apparatus for the analysis of cell nuclei may use a system where images captured from a bright field microscope are analysed and information is retrieved that give quantitative information of the different type of chromatin within the cell nuclei for example Hetrochromatin and Euchromatin. The method is based on segmented cell nuclei. Quantitative information is determined related to the greyscale distribution of the different areas of the chromatin types and the object structure within these different areas.

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