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Kitamura H.,Nagoya City University | Kimura S.,Laboratory of Histology and Cytology | Shimamoto Y.,Kitasato University | Okabe J.,Heart Health | And 18 more authors.
FASEB Journal

Macrophages play a critical role in chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases. We identified a longer splice variant of ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 2-69 as a novel molecule that modulates pathways implicated in metabolic disorders. Expression levels of aP2/ FABP4 and PAI-1/SERPINE1 genes were increased by 4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, after short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of the USP2 gene, and such expression was alleviated by overexpression of USP2-69 in human myeloid cell lines. Supernatants derived from USP2-KD cells induced IL6 (6-fold) and SAA3 (15-fold) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of USP2. In addition, we observed a 30% decrease in the number of macrophages in mesenteric adipose tissue derived from USP2-69 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet for 14 wk compared with that in their C57BL/6 littermates (P<0.01), which was consistent with a 40% decrease in transcription of aP2 and PAI-1. The aP2 locus exhibited elevated chromatin accessibility (>2.1-fold), methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (>4.5- fold), and acetylation of histone H4 (>2.5-fold) in USP2-KD cells. Transfection of isopeptidase-mutated USP2-69 did not alter chromatin conformation on the aP2 locus in USP2-KD cells. Our results suggest that USP2-69 suppresses meta-inflammatory molecules involved in the development of type-2 diabetes.-Kitamura, H., Kimura, S., Shimamoto, Y., Okabe, J., Ito, M., Miyamoto, T., Naoe, Y., Kikuguchi, C., Meek, B., Toda, C., Okamoto, S., Kanehira, K., Hase, K., Watarai, H., Ishizuka, M., El-Osta, A., Ohara, O., Miyoshi, I. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2-69 in macrophages potentially modulates metainflammation. © FASEB. Source

Taniguchi K.,Nagoya City University | Takii T.,Nagoya City University | Yamamoto S.,Japan BCG Laboratory | Maeyama J.-I.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 10 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing

Background: Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which has been inoculated to more than one billion people world-wide, has significant effect in preventing tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis (TB) in neonate and early childhood. However, BCG fails to adequately protect against pulmonary TB and reactivation of latent infections in adults. To overcome this problem, adequate booster is urgently desired in adult who received prior BCG vaccination, and appropriate animal models that substitute human cases would be highly valuable for further experimentation.Findings: The booster effect of the synthesized CpG oligomer (Oligo-B) on aged mice which had been primarily vaccinated with BCG at the age of 4-week old. The specific Th1 type reaction, production of interferon-γ, in response to TB antigens, purified protein derivatives (PPD) and protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv decreased with increasing age and were not observed in 89-week old mice. In order to rejuvenate the Th1 type response against PPD and protection activity against MTB infection, Oligo-B, which is known to augment Th1 responses, was administered as a booster to 81-90-week old mice (late 50's in human equivalent) vaccinated with BCG at 4-week old. The boosting with Oligo-B increased the number of CD4+ CD44high CD62Lhigh, central memory type T cell. Furthermore, the Oligo-B boosting rejuvenated the ability of mice to protect against infection with MTB H37Rv.Conclusions: Th1-adjuvant CpG oligo DNA, such as Oligo-B, may be a promising booster when coupled with BCG priming. © 2013 Taniguchi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ito T.,Nagoya City University | Takii T.,Nagoya City University | Maruyama M.,Institute for Longevity science | Hayashi D.,Nagoya City University | And 7 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing

Background: The tuberculosis (TB) still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice.Results: The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old) were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old). The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice.Conclusion: These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis. © 2010 Ito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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