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Krischek C.,Institute For Lebensmittelqualitat Und Sicherheit | Riegel J.,University of Gottingen | Schuenemann H.,University of Gottingen | Wicke M.,University of Gottingen
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

Foot alterations occur during poultry mast and are influenced by the litter, stocking density and especially the management. The influence of genetic, age or gender of the animals are discussed quite controversial. Therefore, the occurrence of foot pad derma-titis (FPD) and toe rotations in slow (LW) and fast growing (SW) turkey toms slaughtered at the age of 12 and 22 weeks were studied. The elderly as well as the SW-turkeys had higher carcass and breast muscle weights (P < 0.05). The breast muscle percentage (BMA) increased (P < 0.05) with age of the animals. The 12 week old SW-turkeys had higher BMA (P < 0.05) than the LW-animals, while the older turkeys had comparable values (P > 0.05). Regarding the occurrence of FPD a reduction (P < 0.05) with age of the turkeys was found. This change was only due to the decrease of FPD in the older LW-animals. Regarding the number of toe rotations a rise of the values in the older turkeys was determined, but this clear increase (P < 0.05) was due to changes in the 22-week-old SW-animals. The age/weight and the growth intensity significantly influenced the occurrence of pathological foot alterations. Especially in heavy turkey genetics the husbandry management is very important and for welfare reasons turkeys with alterations should be slaughtered earlier. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.

Janisch S.,University of Gottingen | Wicke M.,University of Gottingen | Krischek C.,Institute For Lebensmittelqualitat Und Sicherheit
Fleischwirtschaft | Year: 2011

Poultry meat stored in modified atmosphere packages sometimes shows a high variation of the meat colour. Since the colour of the meat varies physiologically, it is necessary to reduce colour differences in the packages. In the present study the influence of gender on the meat quality of M. pectoralis superficialis (MPS) was investigated. Therefore cockerels and hens of the genetic line Ross 308 were considered. The cockerels had significantly higher carcass, breast muscle and leg weights, whereas the breast and thigh yields were similar between the genders. The MPS of the hens had significantly higher drip loss and electrical conductivity values, and lower pH values. Looking at the brightness (L *) and redness (a *) values over 3 days after slaughter, the L * of the meat increase and a * remained nearly unchanged, but this development was independent of the gender of the broilers. The results show that sexing of broiler chicks shortly after hatch might be useful, to reduce the variation of the carcass and meat quality parameters during slaughter and dissection but especially during packaging of the meat.

Janisch S.,University of Gottingen | Krischek C.,Institute For Lebensmittelqualitat Und Sicherheit | Wicke M.,University of Gottingen
Fleischwirtschaft | Year: 2013

Stunning of animals is an essential procedure before cutting the carotid artery for killing in the slaughter process. In the poultry industry, the stunning is done either by gas (carbon dioxide - oxygen - air mixture) or by electricity. Both types of stunning have their advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, the effect of stunning (gas or electricity) on selected parameters of the meat quality of the breast muscle of broilers and turkeys was analysed. In both species, the results show that stunning has no effect on pH values or early post mortem electrical conductivity. In broilers, stunning did not affect brightness or redness of the meat. But in turkey, the lightness of the meat surface was different between both stunning groups. The number of visible petechia differed between the two ways of stunning. The different types of stunning had negative consequences in both kinds of poultry, electrical stunning in turkeys and stunning with gas in broilers, in regard to petechial hemorrhaging. These differences indicate that the reaction to stunning is not similar in both species.

Sammra O.,Justus Liebig University | Balbutskaya A.,Justus Liebig University | Nagib S.,Justus Liebig University | Alber J.,Justus Liebig University | And 5 more authors.
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift | Year: 2014

The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an Arcanobacterium haemolyticum strain (A. haemolyticum P646) isolated from a purulent nasal discharge of a donkey. A. haemolyticum P646 showed, compared to sheep blood, an enhanced hemolytic reaction on rabbit blood agar, a synergistic CAMP-like reaction with Streptococcus agalactiae and Rhodococcus equi as indicator strains, a reverse CAMP reaction in the zone of Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin and the typical biochemical properties of this species. The species identity could be confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, by sequencing the 16S rDNA and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap and by amplification of A. haemolyticum specific parts of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and 23S rDNA. A. haemolyticum P646 and the reference strain A. haemolyticum DSM 20595 were further characterized by amplification of the putative virulence genes encoding arcanolysin, phospholipase D, hemolysin A, CAMP factor family protein, a collagen binding protein and two neuraminidases which were present for A. haemolyticum DSM 20595. A. haemolyticum P646 showed a comparable gene spectrum but was negative for the genes encoding collagen binding protein and neuraminidase H. To our knowledge, the present study is the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an A. haemolyticum strain isolated from a donkey. © 2014 Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.

Hijazin M.,Justus Liebig University | Prenger-Berninghoff E.,Justus Liebig University | Sammra O.,Justus Liebig University | Alber J.,Justus Liebig University | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2012

A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gramstain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H4) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C14: 0, C16: 0, C18: 0, C18: 1 ω9c and C18: 2 ω6,9c/anteiso-C18: 0 (detected as a summed feature). C10: 0 and C12: 0 were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775T (= CCM 7958T = CCUG 61573T = CIP 110339T). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided. © 2012 IUMS.

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