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Patel N.J.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Manivannan E.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Joshi P.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Ohulchanskyy T.J.,Institute for Lasers | And 3 more authors.
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2015

This report presents a simple strategy to introduce various functionalities in a cyanine dye (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate-polymethine bearing a fused cyclic chloro-cyclohexene ring structure), and assess the impact of these substitutions in tumor uptake, retention and imaging. The results obtained from the structural activity relationship (SAR) study demonstrate that certain structural features introduced in the cyanine dye moiety make a remarkable difference in tumor avidity. Among the compounds investigated, the symmetrical CDs containing an amino-phenyl thioether group attached to a cyclohexene ring system and the two N-butyl linkers with terminal sulfonate groups in benzoindole moieties exhibited excellent tumor imaging ability in BALB/c mice bearing Colon26 tumors. Compared to indocyanine green (ICG), approved by FDA as a blood pooling agent, which has also been investigated for the use in tumor imaging, the modified CD selected on the basis of SAR study produced enhanced uptake and longer retention in tumor(s). A facile approach reported herein for introducing a variety of functionalities in tumor-avid CD provides an opportunity to create multi-imaging modality agent(s). Using a combination of mass spectrometry and absorbance techniques, the photobleaching of one of the CDs was analyzed and significant regioselective photooxidation was observed. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.


Martuscello R.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Spengler R.N.,NanoAxis LLC | Bonoiu A.C.,Institute for Lasers | Davidson B.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 15 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2012

The manifestation of chronic, neuropathic pain includes elevated levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Previously, we have shown that the hippocampus, an area of the brain most notable for its role in learning and memory formation, plays a fundamental role in pain sensation. Using an animal model of peripheral neuropathic pain, we have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular infusion of a TNF antibody adjacent to the hippocampus completely alleviated pain. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of rTNF adjacent to the hippocampus induced pain behavior in naïve animals similar to that expressed during a model of neuropathic pain. These data support our premise that enhanced production of hippocampal-TNF is integral in pain sensation. In the present study, TNF gene expression was induced exclusively in the hippocampus, eliciting increased local bioactive TNF levels, and animals were assessed for pain behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received stereotaxic injection of gold nanorod (GNR)-complexed cDNA (control or TNF) plasmids (nanoplasmidexes), and pain responses (i.e., thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia) were measured. Animals receiving hippocampal microinjection of TNF nanoplasmidexes developed thermal hyperalgesia bilaterally. Sensitivity to mechanical stimulation also developed bilaterally in the rat hind paws. In support of these behavioral findings, immunoreactive staining for TNF, bioactive levels of TNF, and levels of TNF mRNA per polymerase chain reaction analysis were assessed in several brain regions and found to be increased only in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that the specific elevation of TNF in the hippocampus is not a consequence of pain, but in fact induces these behaviors/symptoms. © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wehres N.,Leiden University | Wehres N.,University of Groningen | Zhao D.,Institute for Lasers | Ubachs W.,Institute for Lasers | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The A3∑u - X A3∑ g - electronic spectrum of the linear carbon chain radical HC7H has been recorded fully rotationally resolved. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is used to record the origin band transition in direct absorption through a supersonically expanding planar plasma, discharging a diluted gas mixture of acetylene in helium. Rotational resolution is obtained by operating a commercial pulsed dye laser system in a second grating order configuration, resulting in a narrower bandwidth of about 0.035 cm-1. In total, 39 resolved P- and R-branch transitions are included in a standard fit, yielding for the first time accurate rotational constants for both electronic states. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Roy I.,Institute for Lasers | Vij N.,Institute of NanoBioTechnology
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2010

This review describes the challenges and therapeutic applications of nanodelivery systems for treatment of airway diseases. Therapeutic applications of nanodelivery in airway diseases involve targeted delivery of DNA, short interfering RNA, drugs, or peptides to hematopoietic progenitor cells and pulmonary epithelium to control chronic pathophysiology of obstructive and conformational disorders. The major challenges to nanodelivery involve physiologic barriers such as mucus and alveolar fluid. It is necessary for the nanoparticles to be biodegradable and capable of providing sustained drug delivery to the selected cell type. Once inside the cell, the nanoparticle should be capable of escaping the endocytic degradation machinery. In addition, for effective gene delivery, nuclear entry and chromosomal integration are critical. The strategies to overcome these pathophysiologic barriers are discussed as an attempt to synchronize the efforts of pulmonary biologists, chemists, and clinicians to develop novel nanodelivery therapeutics for airway diseases. From the Clinical Editor: Therapeutic applications of nano-delivery in airway diseases involve targeted delivery of DNA, siRNA, drugs or peptides to hematopoietic progenitor cells and pulmonary epithelium. These nano-particles must be biodegradable, capable of providing sustained drug delivery to specific cells, and should escape the endocytic degradation machinery. For effective gene-delivery they should also provide nuclear entry and chromosomal integration. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Le Quiniou C.,Institute for Lasers | Tian L.,Institute for Lasers | Drop B.,Institute for Lasers | Wientjes E.,Institute for Lasers | And 3 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2015

Photosystem I (PSI) is an essential component of photosynthetic membranes. Despite the high sequence and structural homologies, its absorption properties differ substantially in algae, plants and cyanobacteria. In particular it is characterized by the presence of low-energy chlorophylls (red forms), the number and the energy of which vary in different organisms. The PSI-LHCI (PSI-light harvesting complex I) complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) is significantly larger than that of plants, containing five additional light-harvesting complexes (together binding ≈ 65 chlorophylls), and contains red forms with higher energy than plants. To understand how these differences influence excitation energy transfer and trapping in the system, we studied two PSI-LHCI C.r. particles, differing in antenna size and red-form content, using time-resolved fluorescence and compared them to plant PSI-LHCI. The excited state kinetics in C.r. shows the same average lifetime (50 ps) as in plants suggesting that the effect of antenna enlargement is compensated by higher energy red forms. The system equilibrates very fast, indicating that all Lhcas are well-connected, despite their long distance to the core. The differences between C.r. PSI-LHCI with and without Lhca2 and Lhca9 show that these Lhcas bind red forms, although not the red-most. The red-most forms are in (or functionally close to) other Lhcas and slow down the trapping, but hardly affect the quantum efficiency, which remains as high as 97% even in a complex that contains 235 chlorophylls. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.


PubMed | Institute for Lasers, Roswell Park Cancer Institute and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Photochemistry and photobiology | Year: 2015

This report presents a simple strategy to introduce various functionalities in a cyanine dye (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate-polymethine bearing a fused cyclic chloro-cyclohexene ring structure), and assess the impact of these substitutions in tumor uptake, retention and imaging. The results obtained from the structural activity relationship (SAR) study demonstrate that certain structural features introduced in the cyanine dye moiety make a remarkable difference in tumor avidity. Among the compounds investigated, the symmetrical CDs containing an amino-phenyl thioether group attached to a cyclohexene ring system and the two N-butyl linkers with terminal sulfonate groups in benzoindole moieties exhibited excellent tumor imaging ability in BALB/c mice bearing Colon26 tumors. Compared to indocyanine green (ICG), approved by FDA as a blood pooling agent, which has also been investigated for the use in tumor imaging, the modified CD selected on the basis of SAR study produced enhanced uptake and longer retention in tumor(s). A facile approach reported herein for introducing a variety of functionalities in tumor-avid CD provides an opportunity to create multi-imaging modality agent(s). Using a combination of mass spectrometry and absorbance techniques, the photobleaching of one of the CDs was analyzed and significant regioselective photooxidation was observed.


Home > Press > Onion-like layers help this efficient new nanoparticle glow: A dye-coated surface is 1 of 3 specially crafted layers that help the particle emit light ideal for bioimaging Abstract: A new, onion-like nanoparticle could open new frontiers in biomaging, solar energy harvesting and light-based security techniques. The particle's innovation lies in its layers: a coating of organic dye, a neodymium-containing shell, and a core that incorporates ytterbium and thulium. Together, these strata convert invisible near-infrared light to higher energy blue and UV light with record-high efficiency, a trick that could improve the performance of technologies ranging from deep-tissue imaging and light-induced therapy to security inks used for printing money. When it comes to bioimaging, near-infrared light could be used to activate the light-emitting nanoparticles deep inside the body, providing high-contrast images of areas of interest. In the realm of security, nanoparticle-infused inks could be incorporated into currency designs; such ink would be invisible to the naked eye, but glow blue when hit by a low-energy laser pulse -- a trait very difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce. "It opens up multiple possibilities for the future," says Tymish Ohulchanskyy, deputy director of photomedicine and research associate professor at the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics (ILPB) at the University at Buffalo. "By creating special layers that help transfer energy efficiently from the surface of the particle to the core, which emits blue and UV light, our design helps overcome some of the long-standing obstacles that previous technologies faced," says Guanying Chen, professor of chemistry at Harbin Institute of Technology and ILPB research associate professor. "Our particle is about 100 times more efficient at 'upconverting' light than similar nanoparticles created in the past, making it much more practical," says Jossana Damasco, a UB chemistry PhD student who played a key role in the project. The research was published online in Nano Letters on Oct. 21 and led by the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at UB, and the Harbin Institute of Technology in China, with contributions from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden; Tomsk State University in Russia; and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The study's senior author was Paras Prasad, ILPB executive director and SUNY Distinguished Professor in chemistry, physics, medicine and electrical engineering at UB. Peeling back the layers Converting low-energy light to light of higher energies isn't easy to do. The process involves capturing two or more tiny packets of light called "photons" from a low-energy light source, and combining their energy to form a single, higher-energy photon. The onionesque nanoparticle performs this task beautifully. Each of its three layers fulfills a unique function: The outermost layer is a coating of organic dye. This dye is adept at absorbing photons from low-energy near-infrared light sources. It acts as an "antenna" for the nanoparticle, harvesting light and transferring energy inside, Ohulchanskyy says. The next layer is a neodymium-containing shell. This layer acts as a bridge, transferring energy from the dye to the particle's light-emitting core. Inside the light-emitting core, ytterbium and thulium ions work in concert. The ytterbium ions draw energy into the core and pass the energy on to the thulium ions, which have special properties that enable them to absorb the energy of three, four or five photons at once, and then emit a single higher-energy photon of blue and UV light. So why not just use the core? Why add the dye and neodymium layer at all? As Ohulchanskyy and Chen explain, the core itself is inefficient in absorbing photons from the outside world. That's where the dye comes in. Once you add the dye, the neodymium-containing layer is necessary for transferring energy efficiently from dye to core. Ohulchanskyy uses the analogy of a staircase to explain why this is: When molecules or ions in a material absorb a photon, they enter an "excited" state from which they can transfer energy to other molecules or ions. The most efficient transfer occurs between molecules or ions whose excited states require a similar amount of energy to obtain, but the dye and ytterbium ions have excited states with very different energies. So the team added neodymium -- whose excited state is in between that of the dye and thulium's -- to act as a bridge between the two, creating a "staircase" for the energy to travel down to reach emitting thulium ions. ### The research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, the International Cooperation Project in the Ministry of Science and Technology in China, the Program for Basic Research Excellent Talents in Harbin Institute of Technology, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities in China. In addition to Chen, Damasco, Ohulchanskyy and Prasad, co-authors on the paper included Hailong Qiu, Wei Shao, Rashid R. Valiev, Xiang Wu, Gang Han, Yan Wang, Chunhui Yang and Hans Agren. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | November 11, 2015
Site: www.rdmag.com

A new, onion-like nanoparticle could open new frontiers in biomaging, solar energy harvesting and light-based security techniques. The particle's innovation lies in its layers: a coating of organic dye, a neodymium-containing shell, and a core that incorporates ytterbium and thulium. Together, these strata convert invisible near-infrared light to higher energy blue and UV light with record-high efficiency, a trick that could improve the performance of technologies ranging from deep-tissue imaging and light-induced therapy to security inks used for printing money. When it comes to bioimaging, near-infrared light could be used to activate the light-emitting nanoparticles deep inside the body, providing high-contrast images of areas of interest. In the realm of security, nanoparticle-infused inks could be incorporated into currency designs; such ink would be invisible to the naked eye, but glow blue when hit by a low-energy laser pulse -- a trait very difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce. "It opens up multiple possibilities for the future," says Tymish Ohulchanskyy, deputy director of photomedicine and research associate professor at the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics (ILPB) at the Univ. at Buffalo. "By creating special layers that help transfer energy efficiently from the surface of the particle to the core, which emits blue and UV light, our design helps overcome some of the long-standing obstacles that previous technologies faced," says Guanying Chen, professor of chemistry at Harbin Institute of Technology and ILPB research associate professor. "Our particle is about 100 times more efficient at 'upconverting' light than similar nanoparticles created in the past, making it much more practical," says Jossana Damasco, a UB chemistry PhD student who played a key role in the project. The research was published online in Nano Letters on Oct. 21 and led by the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at UB, and the Harbin Institute of Technology in China, with contributions from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden; Tomsk State University in Russia; and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The study's senior author was Paras Prasad, ILPB executive director and SUNY Distinguished Professor in chemistry, physics, medicine and electrical engineering at UB. Converting low-energy light to light of higher energies isn't easy to do. The process involves capturing two or more tiny packets of light called "photons" from a low-energy light source, and combining their energy to form a single, higher-energy photon. The onionesque nanoparticle performs this task beautifully. Each of its three layers fulfills a unique function: So why not just use the core? Why add the dye and neodymium layer at all? As Ohulchanskyy and Chen explain, the core itself is inefficient in absorbing photons from the outside world. That's where the dye comes in. Once you add the dye, the neodymium-containing layer is necessary for transferring energy efficiently from dye to core. Ohulchanskyy uses the analogy of a staircase to explain why this is: When molecules or ions in a material absorb a photon, they enter an "excited" state from which they can transfer energy to other molecules or ions. The most efficient transfer occurs between molecules or ions whose excited states require a similar amount of energy to obtain, but the dye and ytterbium ions have excited states with very different energies. So the team added neodymium -- whose excited state is in between that of the dye and thulium's -- to act as a bridge between the two, creating a "staircase" for the energy to travel down to reach emitting thulium ions.


News Article | November 10, 2015
Site: phys.org

The particle's innovation lies in its layers: a coating of organic dye, a neodymium-containing shell, and a core that incorporates ytterbium and thulium. Together, these strata convert invisible near-infrared light to higher energy blue and UV light with record-high efficiency, a trick that could improve the performance of technologies ranging from deep-tissue imaging and light-induced therapy to security inks used for printing money. When it comes to bioimaging, near-infrared light could be used to activate the light-emitting nanoparticles deep inside the body, providing high-contrast images of areas of interest. In the realm of security, nanoparticle-infused inks could be incorporated into currency designs; such ink would be invisible to the naked eye, but glow blue when hit by a low-energy laser pulse—a trait very difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce. "It opens up multiple possibilities for the future," says Tymish Ohulchanskyy, deputy director of photomedicine and research associate professor at the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics (ILPB) at the University at Buffalo. "By creating special layers that help transfer energy efficiently from the surface of the particle to the core, which emits blue and UV light, our design helps overcome some of the long-standing obstacles that previous technologies faced," says Guanying Chen, professor of chemistry at Harbin Institute of Technology and ILPB research associate professor. "Our particle is about 100 times more efficient at 'upconverting' light than similar nanoparticles created in the past, making it much more practical," says Jossana Damasco, a UB chemistry PhD student who played a key role in the project. The research was published online in Nano Letters on Oct. 21 and led by the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at UB, and the Harbin Institute of Technology in China, with contributions from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden; Tomsk State University in Russia; and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The study's senior author was Paras Prasad, ILPB executive director and SUNY Distinguished Professor in chemistry, physics, medicine and electrical engineering at UB. Converting low-energy light to light of higher energies isn't easy to do. The process involves capturing two or more tiny packets of light called "photons" from a low-energy light source, and combining their energy to form a single, higher-energy photon. The onionesque nanoparticle performs this task beautifully. Each of its three layers fulfills a unique function: So why not just use the core? Why add the dye and neodymium layer at all? As Ohulchanskyy and Chen explain, the core itself is inefficient in absorbing photons from the outside world. That's where the dye comes in. Once you add the dye, the neodymium-containing layer is necessary for transferring energy efficiently from dye to core. Ohulchanskyy uses the analogy of a staircase to explain why this is: When molecules or ions in a material absorb a photon, they enter an "excited" state from which they can transfer energy to other molecules or ions. The most efficient transfer occurs between molecules or ions whose excited states require a similar amount of energy to obtain, but the dye and ytterbium ions have excited states with very different energies. So the team added neodymium—whose excited state is in between that of the dye and thulium's—to act as a bridge between the two, creating a "staircase" for the energy to travel down to reach emitting thulium ions. Explore further: Nanoparticles glow through thick layer of tissue


News Article | November 11, 2015
Site: www.cemag.us

A new, onion-like nanoparticle could open new frontiers in biomaging, solar energy harvesting, and light-based security techniques. The particle’s innovation lies in its layers: a coating of organic dye, a neodymium-containing shell, and a core that incorporates ytterbium and thulium. Together, these strata convert invisible near-infrared light to higher energy blue and UV light with record-high efficiency, a trick that could improve the performance of technologies ranging from deep-tissue imaging and light-induced therapy to security inks used for printing money. When it comes to bioimaging, near-infrared light could be used to activate the light-emitting nanoparticles deep inside the body, providing high-contrast images of areas of interest. In the realm of security, nanoparticle-infused inks could be incorporated into currency designs; such ink would be invisible to the naked eye, but glow blue when hit by a low-energy laser pulse — a trait very difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce. “It opens up multiple possibilities for the future,” says Tymish Ohulchanskyy, deputy director of photomedicine and research associate professor at the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics (ILPB) at the University at Buffalo. “By creating special layers that help transfer energy efficiently from the surface of the particle to the core, which emits blue and UV light, our design helps overcome some of the long-standing obstacles that previous technologies faced,” says Guanying Chen, professor of chemistry at Harbin Institute of Technology and ILPB research associate professor. “Our particle is about 100 times more efficient at ‘upconverting’ light than similar nanoparticles created in the past, making it much more practical,” says Jossana Damasco, a UB chemistry PhD student who played a key role in the project. The research was published online in Nano Letters and led by the Institute for Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics at UB, and the Harbin Institute of Technology in China, with contributions from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden; Tomsk State University in Russia; and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The study’s senior author was Paras Prasad, ILPB executive director and SUNY Distinguished Professor in chemistry, physics, medicine and electrical engineering at UB. Converting low-energy light to light of higher energies isn’t easy to do. The process involves capturing two or more tiny packets of light called “photons” from a low-energy light source, and combining their energy to form a single, higher-energy photon. The onionesque nanoparticle performs this task beautifully. Each of its three layers fulfills a unique function: The outermost layer is a coating of organic dye. This dye is adept at absorbing photons from low-energy near-infrared light sources. It acts as an “antenna” for the nanoparticle, harvesting light and transferring energy inside, Ohulchanskyy says. The next layer is a neodymium-containing shell. This layer acts as a bridge, transferring energy from the dye to the particle’s light-emitting core. Inside the light-emitting core, ytterbium and thulium ions work in concert. The ytterbium ions draw energy into the core and pass the energy on to the thulium ions, which have special properties that enable them to absorb the energy of three, four or five photons at once, and then emit a single higher-energy photon of blue and UV light. So why not just use the core? Why add the dye and neodymium layer at all? As Ohulchanskyy and Chen explain, the core itself is inefficient in absorbing photons from the outside world. That’s where the dye comes in. Once you add the dye, the neodymium-containing layer is necessary for transferring energy efficiently from dye to core. Ohulchanskyy uses the analogy of a staircase to explain why this is: When molecules or ions in a material absorb a photon, they enter an “excited” state from which they can transfer energy to other molecules or ions. The most efficient transfer occurs between molecules or ions whose excited states require a similar amount of energy to obtain, but the dye and ytterbium ions have excited states with very different energies. So the team added neodymium — whose excited state is in between that of the dye and thulium’s — to act as a bridge between the two, creating a “staircase” for the energy to travel down to reach emitting thulium ions. The research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, the International Cooperation Project in the Ministry of Science and Technology in China, the Program for Basic Research Excellent Talents in Harbin Institute of Technology, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities in China. In addition to Chen, Damasco, Ohulchanskyy and Prasad, co-authors on the paper included Hailong Qiu, Wei Shao, Rashid R. Valiev, Xiang Wu, Gang Han, Yan Wang, Chunhui Yang, and Hans Agren.

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