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Sabelhaus D.,Institute For Landtechnik | Roben F.,Claas Agrosystems KGaA mbH and Co KG | Meyer zu Helligen L.P.,Claas Agrosystems KGaA mbH and Co KG | Schulze Lammers P.,Institute For Landtechnik
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2013

Today's agricultural engineering is characterised by automation and information technology. Automatic steering systems have become an adequate tool for guidance on a track with accuracy in the range of centimetres. Consequently, the transition from track to track must be planned exactly, so that the target track is achieved precisely. A method which can generate turn trajectories - so-called headland turns - with smooth transition and a fast computation performance is investigated. The method is based on the continuous-curvature path planning in the field of mobile robotics and is connected to the specific agronomic requirements. In this context the clothoid construction element constitutes the main construction element. It enables the smooth connection from zero curvature to maximal curvature which represents the reciprocal of the minimal turning radius. In totality, a manoeuvre can be planned with modified Dubins curves, both going backwards and forwards is feasible with modified Reeds and Shepp curves. Seven different manoeuvres are useful from an agronomic point of view. It is shown that all turn manoeuvres are feasible with this method. Also an analysis regarding the trajectory length, the headland width and the operation time is shown. © 2013 IAgrE. Source


Gorny S.,Institute For Landtechnik | Widdig J.,Institute For Landtechnik | Bichler S.,Institute For Landtechnik | Stamminger R.,Institute For Landtechnik
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2014

The current EN 50242/EN 60436:2008 tests the performance of electric household dishwashers by using soiled dishes persistently dried in a thermal cabinet. Assuming the conditions of soiling load and persistence of the soiling as representative for consumer behaviour may be challenged. The difficulty in laboratory testing is to simulate usage behaviour under restrictions of limited time and personnel conditions. The task was to verify if the thermal drying of dishes in a thermal cabinet is able to mimic the typical air drying of dishes in consumer households. Experiments were conducted comparing the cleaning performance of a dishwasher load after air drying the soiled dishes in controlled ambient conditions to the cleaning performance of a dishwasher load after a thermal drying process in a thermal cabinet. Results show that thermal drying is able to display dishwashing frequencies for 91.6% of German households. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Source


Doerpmund M.,Institute For Landtechnik | Cai X.,Institute For Landtechnik | Walgenbach M.,Institute For Landtechnik | Vondricka J.,Institute For Landtechnik | Schulze Lammers P.,Institute For Landtechnik
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2011

A direct injection system that injects pesticides locally at all nozzles on a boom was assembled and investigated under laboratory conditions with regards to its ability to be cleaned. The system was contaminated with a safe-to-use polyvinylpyrrolidone-water solution as a test pesticide before cleaning. The cleaning process was divided into two steps: 1) reclaiming the simulated pesticide by pushing it back into the pesticide tank using pressurised air (pre-cleaning) and 2) rinsing the contaminated part of the hydraulic system with water. Cleaning performance was investigated systematically to ascertain the initial dynamics of the rinsing process as well as long term cleaning. Evaluations included variation of 1) pre-cleaning time and 2) water inlet position. Measurements showed that the concentration of the simulated pesticide in the rinsing water could initially be as high as 30%. As the pre-cleaning time was extended the initial concentration was reduced by one third. Changing the water inlet position reduced the initial concentration of the simulated pesticide in the rinsing water to 5%. These concentrations were much higher than in most common spray solutions. This means that if an active pesticide was used further dilution of the pesticide concentration in the rinsing water would be required for it to be sprayed on a crop. In some cases it took more than 10 min to dilute simulated pesticide residues in a 3 m test section down to 0% which clearly shows the need for more research on factors influencing the cleaning process and more development of cleaning processes. © 2011 IAgrE. Source


Dorpmund M.,Institute For Landtechnik | Cai X.,Institute For Landtechnik | Walgenbach M.,Institute For Landtechnik | Vondricka J.,Institute For Landtechnik | Lammers P.S.,Institute For Landtechnik
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2012

A direct injection system (DIS) for pesticide injection at all nozzles was set up in order to ascertain its ability to be cleaned. Under laboratory conditions, the system was contaminated with a safe-to-use salty polyvinylpyrrolidonewater solution as a test pesticide and then cleaned in two steps: (1) reclaiming the test pesticide by pushing it back into the pesticide tank using pressurized air (pre-cleaning) and (2) rinsing the contaminated part of the hydraulic system with water. Tests on a 3 m wide test bench included gravimetric and conductivity measurements to determine the amount of residues in the test section and test pesticide concentrations in the rinsing water. Mechanical action inside the test section was varied by (1) increasing the air pressure for pre-cleaning, (2) increasing the rinsing water pressure, and (3) employing pulsed water-air flow. Initial test pesticide concentrations in the rinsing water could be as high as 25%, which is more than in common spray mixes and requires further dilution. While continuous rinsing at higher pressures saved up to 10% of the water, rinsing the test section with pulsed water led to water savings of more than 50%. Rinsing turned out to be a time-consuming procedure, as it took almost 10 min for test pesticide concentrations in the rinsing water to approach 0%. © 2012 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Source

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