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Delaunay-Moisan A.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Delaunay-Moisan A.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Appenzeller-Herzog C.,BFG Baselland
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Cellular metabolism is inherently linked to the production of oxidizing by-products, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). When present in excess, H2O2 can damage cellular biomolecules, but when produced in coordinated fashion, it typically serves as a mobile signaling messenger. It is therefore not surprising that cell health critically relies on both low-molecular-weight and enzymatic antioxidant components, which protect from ROS-mediated damage and shape the propagation and duration of ROS signals. This review focuses on H2O2-antioxidant cross talk in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is intimately linked to the process of oxidative protein folding. ER-resident or ER-regulated sources of H2O2 and other ROS, which are subgrouped into constitutive and stimulated sources, are discussed and set into context with the diverse antioxidant mechanisms in the organelle. These include two types of peroxide-reducing enzymes, a high concentration of glutathione derived from the cytosol, and feedback-regulated thiol-disulfide switches, which negatively control the major ER oxidase ER oxidoreductin-1. Finally, new evidence highlighting emerging principles of H2O2-based cues at the ER will likely set a basis for establishing ER redox processes as a major line of future signaling research. A fundamental problem that remains to be solved is the specific, quantitative, time resolved, and targeted detection of H2O2 in the ER and in specialized ER subdomains. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Scrima N.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Lepault J.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Boulard Y.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Boulard Y.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

The tegument of all herpesviruses contains a capsid-bound large protein that is essential for multiple viral processes, including capsid transport, decapsidation at the nuclear pore complex, particle assembly, and secondary envelopment, through mechanisms that are still incompletely understood. We report here a structural characterization of the central 970 residues of this protein for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 UL36, 3164 residues). This large fragment is essentially a 34-nm-long monomeric fiber. The crystal structure of its C terminus shows an elongated domain-swapped dimer. Modeling and molecular dynamics simulations give a likely molecular organization for the monomeric form and extend our findings to alphaherpesvirinae. Hence, we propose that an essential feature of UL36 is the existence in its central region of a stalk capable of connecting capsid and membrane across the tegument and that the ability to switch between monomeric and dimeric forms may help UL36 fulfill its multiple functions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Dessaux Y.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Grandclement C.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC | Faure D.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell I2BC
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2016

All components of the rhizosphere can be engineered to promote plant health and growth, two features that strongly depend upon the interactions of living organisms with their environment. This review describes the progress in plant and microbial molecular genetics and ecology that has led to a wealth of potential applications. Recent efforts especially deal with the plant defense machinery that is instrumental in engineering plant resistance to biotic stresses. Another approach involves microbial population engineering rather than single strain engineering. More generally, the plants (and the associated microbes) are no longer seen as 'individual' but rather as a holobiont, in other words a unit of selection in evolution, a concept that holds great promise for future plant breeding programs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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