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Frascella A.,ENEA | Swiderski J.,Polish Institute of Power Engineering | Proserpio G.,RSE SpA | Rikos E.,Center for Renewable Energy Sources CRES | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings - 2015 International Symposium on Smart Electric Distribution Systems and Technologies, EDST 2015 | Year: 2015

A huge set of Smart Grid related standards already exist and is continuously being updated in various technical working groups in various parts of the world. Ongoing EU-funded ELECTRA Integrated Research Programme (IRP) on Smart Grids [1] aims to re-use the existing standards within its in progress activities considering to be in compliance with the standardization groups like CEN/CENELEC/ETSI, NIST and others. Moving towards the implementation of the functional architecture, it is important to be aware of the information to be exchanged and how communication protocols can be used in support of Smart Grid information exchange. Therefore, a reference method needs to be developed for assessing and classifying the ICT interoperability standards and specifications. The existing Common Assessment Method for Standards and Specifications (CAMSS) is thought to be a tool for Public Administration choices of standards, especially for e-government and e-procurement in EU. Despite CAMSS defines an evaluation schema for standards and specifications via an Excel tool, this paper shows that the CAMSS approach needs to be modified and adapted for the goals of ELECTRA IRP. Moreover, the elaborated tool would not only be useful for ELECTRA purposes but it would be used in a broader Smart Grid (SG) perspective as well and also, with some slight adaptations, more in general, for all complex contexts involving a high number of standards (e.g. the Smart City context). © 2015 IEEE. Source


Gezgin T.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Etzien C.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Henkler S.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Rettberg A.,Carl von Ossietzky University
Proceedings - 2012 15th IEEE International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing Workshops, ISORCW 2012 | Year: 2012

The scope of this paper is collaborative, distributed safety critical systems which build up a larger scale system of systems (SoS). Systems participating in an SoS follow both global as well as individual goals, which may be contradicting. Both the global and local goals of the overall SoS may change over time. Hence, self-adaptive ness, i.e., reconfiguration of the SoS as a reaction on changes within its context is a major characteristic of this systems. The aim of this paper is to describe first steps towards a modeling formalism for SoS in a safety critical context. The challenge is to address on the one hand the required flexibility to adapt the system during run-time and on the other hand to guarantee that the system reacts still in a safe manner. To address these challenges, we propose an approach which guarantees that the system still reacts in a safe manner while adaption to uncertainty including context changes. This adaption has to be assumed as unsafe during design time. The key for having success is to define the interaction between the systems as well as its goals as basic elements of the design. Based on our former work, we propose a well-defined modeling approach for the interaction based on components as basic structural elements, the contract paradigm for the design of the interaction, and graph transformations, which addresses the adaptivity of system of systems. The component model is additionally explicitly enriched by goals, which supports so called evaluation functions to determine the level of target achievement. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Etzien C.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Gezgin T.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Froschle S.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Henkler S.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Rettberg A.,Carl von Ossietzky University
16th IEEE International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, ISORC 2013 | Year: 2014

In this work we address evolving systems, which are basically collaborative and distributed systems building up a larger scale system of system (SoS). These systems are able to adapt the current architecture to some changes in the environment. Constituent systems of a SoS, which represent the basic elements of our modeling approach, operate with different degrees of freedom and as a result the self-adaptation and cooperation between a set of constituent systems is driven by local needs. Based on our former work [11], we propose a well-defined modelling approach for SoS capturing both static and dynamic aspects. The aim is to address on the one hand the required flexibility to adapt the systems during run-time, and on the other hand to guarantee that the SoS reacts still in a safe manner. For this, we will use the contract paradigm for both the specification of legal configurations of the SoS, and to specify the dynamicity model, describing how the SoS architecture can change during run-time. Further, we depict how to adapt a system level analysis technique in order to check the dynamicity model against the invariants of the SoS. With this, we are able to determine, whether the SoS can reach some critical configurations. This enables us to modify the dynamicity model in an adequate manner. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Gezgin T.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Henkler S.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Stierand I.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Rettberg A.,Carl von Ossietzky University
Proceedings - 2014 12th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2014 | Year: 2014

The analysis of real-time properties is crucial in safety critical areas. Systems have to work in a timely manner to offer correct services. The analysis of timing properties is particularly difficult for distributed systems when complex interferences between individual tasks can occur. Considering only critical instances, as analytic approaches do, may deliver pessimistic results leading to higher production costs. In previous works we introduced a state-based approach to validate task-and end-to-end deadlines for distributed systems. To improve scalability and reduce the analysis time, the approach computes the state spaces of the individual resources in a compositional fashion. For this, abstraction and composition operations were defined to remove those parts of the inputs of resources which have no influence on the response times of the allocated tasks. In this work, a new abstraction technique is introduced for scenarios where event bursts occur. Further, we extend our approach for systems with cyclic dependencies among the resources. We evaluate our approach on a set of example scenarios and compare the results with the state-of-the-art tool Uppaal. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Zimmermann S.,Institute for Information Technology OFFIS | Eichhorn V.,University of Oldenburg | Fatikow S.,University of Oldenburg
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems | Year: 2012

This paper presents a nanorobotic approach facilitating the transfer and characterization of individual graphene flakes that are grown by different fabrication techniques. The approach makes use of a nanorobotic atomic force microscope system that is integrated into a high resolution scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam device. This combination is used to perform both, the nanorobotic transfer and the mechanical characterization of the graphene flake allowing to systematically analyze different sample areas and to optimize the fabrication processes. Furthermore, the nanorobotic system enables the reliable pick-and-place handling and processing of graphene flakes to realize more comprehensive analysis steps or even the prototyping of graphene-based devices. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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