Singapore, Singapore
Singapore, Singapore

Time filter

Source Type

Zhang R.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Zhang R.,National University of Singapore
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2010

Block diagonalization (BD) is a practical linear precoding technique that eliminates the inter-user interference in downlink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In this paper, we apply BD to the downlink transmission in a cooperative multi-cell MIMO system, where the signals from different base stations (BSs) to all the mobile stations (MSs) are jointly designed with the perfect knowledge of the downlink channels and transmit messages. Specifically, we study the optimal BD precoder design to maximize the weighted sum-rate of all the MSs subject to a set of per-BS power constraints. This design problem is formulated in an auxiliary MIMO broadcast channel (BC) with a set of transmit power constraints corresponding to those for individual BSs in the multi-cell system. By applying convex optimization techniques, this paper develops an efficient algorithm to solve this problem, and derives the closed-form expression for the optimal BD precoding matrix. It is revealed that the optimal BD precoding vectors for each MS in the per-BS power constraint case are in general non-orthogonal, which differs from the conventional orthogonal BD precoder design for the MIMO-BC under one single sum-power constraint. Moreover, for the special case of single-antenna BSs and MSs, the proposed solution reduces to the optimal zero-forcing beamforming (ZF-BF) precoder design for the weighted sum-rate maximization in the multiple-input single-output (MISO) BC with per-antenna power constraints. Suboptimal and low-complexity BD/ZF-BF precoding schemes are also presented, and their achievable rates are compared against those with the optimal schemes. © 2006 IEEE.

Zhang R.,National University of Singapore | Zhang R.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Ho C.K.,Institute for Infocomm Research
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a promising new solution to provide convenient and perpetual energy supplies to wireless networks. In practice, WPT is implementable by various technologies such as inductive coupling, magnetic resonate coupling, and electromagnetic (EM) radiation, for short-/mid-/long- range applications, respectively. In this paper, we consider the EM or radio signal enabled WPT in particular. Since radio signals can carry energy as well as information at the same time, a unified study on simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is pursued. Specifically, this paper studies a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless broadcast system consisting of three nodes, where one receiver harvests energy and another receiver decodes information separately from the signals sent by a common transmitter, and all the transmitter and receivers may be equipped with multiple antennas. Two scenarios are examined, in which the information receiver and energy receiver are separated and see different MIMO channels from the transmitter, or co-located and see the identical MIMO channel from the transmitter. For the case of separated receivers, we derive the optimal transmission strategy to achieve different tradeoffs for maximal information rate versus energy transfer, which are characterized by the boundary of a so-called rate-energy (R-E) region. For the case of co-located receivers, we show an outer bound for the achievable R-E region due to the potential limitation that practical energy harvesting receivers are not yet able to decode information directly. Under this constraint, we investigate two practical designs for the co-located receiver case, namely time switching and power splitting, and characterize their achievable R-E regions in comparison to the outer bound. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Ju H.,National University of Singapore | Zhang R.,National University of Singapore | Zhang R.,Institute for Infocomm Research
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2014

This paper studies the newly emerging wireless powered communication network in which one hybrid access point (H-AP) with constant power supply coordinates the wireless energy/information transmissions to/from a set of distributed users that do not have other energy sources. A "harvest-then- transmit" protocol is proposed where all users first harvest the wireless energy broadcast by the H-AP in the downlink (DL) and then send their independent information to the H-AP in the uplink (UL) by time-division- multiple-access (TDMA). First, we study the sum-throughput maximization of all users by jointly optimizing the time allocation for the DL wireless power transfer versus the users' UL information transmissions given a total time constraint based on the users' DL and UL channels as well as their average harvested energy values. By applying convex optimization techniques, we obtain the closed-form expressions for the optimal time allocations to maximize the sum-throughput. Our solution reveals an interesting "doubly near-far" phenomenon due to both the DL and UL distance-dependent signal attenuation, where a far user from the H-AP, which receives less wireless energy than a nearer user in the DL, has to transmit with more power in the UL for reliable information transmission. As a result, the maximum sum-throughput is shown to be achieved by allocating substantially more time to the near users than the far users, thus resulting in unfair rate allocation among different users. To overcome this problem, we furthermore propose a new performance metric so-called common-throughput with the additional constraint that all users should be allocated with an equal rate regardless of their distances to the H-AP. We present an efficient algorithm to solve the common-throughput maximization problem. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the common-throughput approach for solving the new doubly near-far problem in wireless powered communication networks. © 2014 IEEE.

Ho C.K.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Zhang R.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Zhang R.,National University of Singapore
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) or full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and the full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution where the so-called water levels follow a staircase function. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Lu S.,Institute for Infocomm Research
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging | Year: 2011

Under the framework of computer-aided diagnosis, this paper presents an accurate and efficient optic disc (OD) detection and segmentation technique. A circular transformation is designed to capture both the circular shape of the OD and the image variation across the OD boundary simultaneously. For each retinal image pixel, it evaluates the image variation along multiple evenly-oriented radial line segments of specific length. The pixels with the maximum variation along all radial line segments are determined, which can be further exploited to locate both the OD center and the OD boundary accurately. Experiments show that OD detection accuracies of 99.75%, 97.5%, and 98.77% are obtained for the STARE dataset, the ARIA dataset, and the MESSIDOR dataset, respectively, and the OD center error lies around six pixels for the STARE dataset and the ARIA dataset which is much smaller than that of state-of-the-art methods ranging 14-29 pixels. In addition, the OD segmentation accuracies of 93.4% and 91.7% are obtained for STARE dataset and ARIA dataset, respectively, that consists of many severely degraded images of pathological retinas that state-of-the-art methods cannot segment properly. Furthermore, the algorithm runs in 5 s, which is substantially faster than many of the state-of-the-art methods. © 2006 IEEE.

Pei Y.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Liang Y.-C.,Institute for Infocomm Research
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Device-to-device (D2D) communications has been proposed in the literature as an underlay approach to cellular networks to allow direct transmission between two cellular devices with local communication needs. In this paper, we consider a scenario of D2D communications overlaying a cellular network and propose a new spectrum sharing protocol, which allows the D2D users to communicate bi-directionally with each other while assisting the two-way communications between the cellular base station (BS) and the cellular user (CU). We derive the achievable rate region of the sum rate of the D2D transmissions versus that of the cellular transmissions. The Pareto boundary of the region is found by optimizing the transmit power at BS and CU as well as the power splitting factor at the relay D2D node. Since either of the two D2D users can be the relay and there can exist multiple pairs of D2D users, we also consider the relay selection from the potential D2D users. We find through numerical results that the proposed two-way protocol with power control at the BS and CU is effective to improve the sum rate for both the D2D and cellular users. In addition, relay selection can achieve further improvement in the sum rate of the cellular links. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Tarasak P.,Institute for Infocomm Research
2011 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2011 | Year: 2011

Implementation of real-time communication systems enables real-time pricing for smart grid operation. Recently, [1] proposed a utility framework and a distributed algorithm for real-time pricing. We extend this work to include the effect from load uncertainty. We derive the optimal prices under different types of load uncertainty and show how it influences power consumption and generating capacity. Simulation results indicate power consumption back-offs when there is load uncertainty and provide comparisons among the load uncertainty models. © 2011 IEEE.

Cheung W.C.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Quek T.Q.S.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Kountouris M.,Supelec
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2012

The deployment of femtocells in a macrocell network is an economical and effective way to increase network capacity and coverage. Nevertheless, such deployment is challenging due to the presence of inter-tier and intra-tier interference, and the ad hoc operation of femtocells. Motivated by the flexible subchannel allocation capability of OFDMA, we investigate the effect of spectrum allocation in two-tier networks, where the macrocells employ closed access policy and the femtocells can operate in either open or closed access. By introducing a tractable model, we derive the success probability for each tier under different spectrum allocation and femtocell access policies. In particular, we consider joint subchannel allocation, in which the whole spectrum is shared by both tiers, as well as disjoint subchannel allocation, whereby disjoint sets of subchannels are assigned to both tiers. We formulate the throughput maximization problem subject to quality of service constraints in terms of success probabilities and per-tier minimum rates, and provide insights into the optimal spectrum allocation. Our results indicate that with closed access femtocells, the optimized joint and disjoint subchannel allocations provide the highest throughput among all schemes in sparse and dense femtocell networks, respectively. With open access femtocells, the optimized joint subchannel allocation provides the highest possible throughput for all femtocell densities. © 2006 IEEE.

Joung J.,Institute for Infocomm Research | Sayed A.H.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

In this paper, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay transceiver processing is proposed for multiuser two-way relay communications. The relay processing is optimized based on both zero-forcing (ZF) and minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) criteria under relay power constraints. Various transmit and receive beamforming methods are compared including eigen beamforming, antenna selection, random beamforming, and modified equal gain beamforming. Local and global power control methods are designed to achieve fairness among all users and to maximize the system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical results show that the proposed multiuser two-way relay processing can efficiently eliminate both co-channel interference (CCI) and self-interference (SI). © 2010 IEEE.

Meher P.K.,Institute for Infocomm Research
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers | Year: 2010

Distributed arithmetic (DA)-based computation is popular for its potential for efficient memory-based implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter where the filter outputs are computed as inner-product of input-sample vectors and filter-coefficient vector. In this paper, however, we show that the look-up-table (LUT)-multiplier-based approach, where the memory elements store all the possible values of products of the filter coefficients could be an area-efficient alternative to DA-based design of FIR filter with the same throughput of implementation. By operand and inner-product decompositions, respectively, we have designed the conventional LUT-multiplier-based and DA-based structures for FIR filter of equivalent throughput, where the LUT-multiplier-based design involves nearly the same memory and the same number of adders, and less number of input register at the cost of slightly higher adder-widths than the other. Moreover, we present two new approaches to LUT-based multiplication, which could be used to reduce the memory size to half of the conventional LUT-based multiplication. Besides, we present a modified transposed form FIR filter, where a single segmented memory-core with only one pair of decoders are used to minimize the combinational area. The proposed LUT-based FIR filter is found to involve nearly half the memory-space and (1/N) times the complexity of decoders and input-registers, at the cost of marginal increase in the width of the adders, and additional ∼(4N× W) AND-OR-INVERT gates and ∼(2N×W) NOR gates. We have synthesized the DA-based design and LUT-multiplier based design of 16-tap FIR filters by Synopsys Design Compiler using TSMC 90 nm library, and find that the proposed LUT-multiplier-based design involves nearly 15% less area than the DA-based design for the same throughput and lower latency of implementation. © 2010 IEEE.

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