Institute for Infectious Diseases

Belgrade, Serbia

Institute for Infectious Diseases

Belgrade, Serbia
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PubMed | University of Leicester, University of Florence, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016

Biocides and antibiotics are used to eradicate or prevent the growth of microbial species on surfaces (occasionally on catheters), or infected sites, either in combination or sequentially, raising concerns about the development of co-resistance to both antimicrobial types. The effect of such compounds on Salmonella enterica, a major food-borne and zoonotic pathogen, has been analysed in different studies, but only few works evaluated its biological cost, and the overall effects at the genomic and transcriptomic levels associated with diverse phenotypes resulting from biocide exposure, which was the aim of this work.Exposure to triclosan, clorhexidine, benzalkonium, (but not to hypochlorite) resulted in mutants with different phenotypes to a wide range of antimicrobials even unrelated to the selective agent. Most biocide-resistant mutants showed increased susceptibility to compounds acting on the cell wall (-lactams) or the cell membranes (poly-L-lysine, polymyxin B, colistin or toxic anions). Mutations (SNPs) were found in three intergenic regions and nine genes, which have a role in energy production, amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids metabolism, some of them involved in membrane transport and pathogenicity. Comparative transcriptomics of biocide-resistant mutants showed over-expression of genes encoding efflux pumps (sugE), ribosomal and transcription-related proteins, cold-shock response (cpeE) and enzymes of microaerobic metabolism including those of the phosphotransferase system. Mainly ribosomal, metabolic and pathogenicity-related genes had affected expression in both in vitro-selected biocide mutants and field Salmonella isolates with reduced biocide susceptibility.Multiple pathways can be involved in the adaptation of Salmonella to biocides, mainly related with global stress, or involving metabolic and membrane alterations, and eventually causing collateral sensitivity to other antimicrobials. These changes might impact the bacterial-environment interaction, imposing significant bacterial fitness costs which may reduce the chances of fixation and spread of biocide resistant mutants.


Bonaci-Nikolic B.,Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Bonaci-Nikolic B.,University of Belgrade | Andrejevic S.,Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Pavlovic M.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Chronic infections may mimic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). We investigated which markers may help in the diagnosis and the prognosis of infections associated with proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. In this study (1993-2008)-with an average follow-up of 5.1 years-we compared 66 AAV patients with 17 PR3 and/or MPO-ANCA-positive patients with protracted bacterial (11/17) or viral (6/17) infections. Seven of 17 patients had subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE), while six of 17 patients had various autoimmune manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We determined ANCA, antinuclear antibodies, anti-PR3, anti-MPO, anticardiolipin (aCL), antibeta 2 glycoprotein I (β2-GP I), cryoglobulins, C3, and C4. Patients with infections were younger than AAV patients (p<0.01). There was no difference in frequency of renal and skin lesions. AAV patients more frequently had pulmonary and nervous system manifestations (p<0.01). Patients with infections more frequently had dual ANCA (high PR3, low MPO), aCL, anti-β2-GP I, cryoglobulins, and hypocomplementemia (pβ0.001). Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was used in five 17 patients who had persistently high ANCA, cryoglobulinemia, and hypocomplementemia. There was no difference in frequency of lethality and renal failure in the two study groups. In patients who are PR3-and/or MPO-ANCA positive, SBE and HCV infection should be excluded. Although similar in renal and skin manifestations in comparison to AAV, only patients with infections developed multiple serological abnormalities. In patients with infections, concomitant presence of ANCA, cryoglobulins, and hypocomplementemia was associated with severe glomerulonephritis. The serological profile should be repeated after specific antimicrobial or surgical therapy, since some cases might require IST. © Clinical Rheumatology 2010.


Seale H.,University of New South Wales | Wang Q.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Yang P.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Dwyer D.E.,Westmead Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

During a pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) will be essential to the health system response. This pre-pandemic study aimed to extend previous research by assessing the views, and intended behaviors of hospital HCWs in Beijing, China, regarding pandemic influenza. We undertook a cross-sectional investigation of a sample of HCWs from 24 hospitals in Beijing, China in January 2009. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation. Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious but very few were able to correctly define it. 74% (n=1406) of respondents accepted the risk of getting pandemic influenza as part of their job and 71% (n=1350) felt that they have the necessary knowledge to provide patient care during it. We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans-the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective intervention; secondly, a high proportion of staff potentially engaging in inappropriate working behaviors © 2012 Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health.


Casanova C.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Schweiger A.,University of Bern | Schweiger A.,Hospital of Schwyz | Von Steiger N.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

An unusual increase in the number of Campylobacter concisus isolates found in stool cultures provoked an outbreak investigation at Bern University Hospital. No epidemiological links were found between the cases, and the Campylobacter isolates were clonally unrelated. A change in culture conditions to a hydrogen-rich atmosphere enhancing growth of C. concisus was deemed responsible for this pseudo-outbreak. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Seale H.,University of New South Wales | Wang Q.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Yang P.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Dwyer D.E.,Westmead Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Occupational Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for health care workers (HCWs) in many countries in order to reduce the morbidity associated with influenza in health care settings. However, compliance rates with influenza vaccination are commonly low. Aims: To evaluate the current vaccination status of HCWs in Beijing, China, and examine their attitudes towards the disease and the vaccine. Methods: In January 2009, a survey was completed by 1909 HCWs in emergency departments, infection fever clinics, respiratory ward/outpatient's clinics and pediatric medical departments of 24 hospitals in Beijing (99% response rate). Results: Respondents were categorized into three main groups by occupation: nursing (60%, n = 1143), medical (36%, n = 5693) and other (4%, n = 573). When examining beliefs about the influenza vaccine, 57% (n = 51081) felt it was safe and 54% (n = 1028) thought it was effective. Less than 18% stated that they had been immunized in 2008; 40% (n = 765) or participants agreed with the statement 'the flu vaccine can cause flu in some people'. Conclusions: A better understanding of the barriers to vaccination in this population should facilitate the development of programs to make health care facilities a safer environment for both HCWs and patients. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved.


Seale H.,University of New South Wales | Kaur R.,University of New South Wales | Wang Q.,University of New South Wales | Yang P.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Due to the advent of the new influenza A (H1N1) strain in 2009, many countries introduced mass immunization programs. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were amongst the key groups targeted for the vaccine in these programs. However, experience with the seasonal influenza vaccine has shown that there are multiple barriers related to the attitudes and perceptions of the population which influence uptake. The aim of this study was to determine pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination rate amongst a group of Chinese HCWs and the associated factors around acceptance. A cross-sectional investigation of HCWs (doctors, nurses and technicians) from 19 hospitals in Beijing, China was conducted in January 2010. The main outcome measures were awareness, risk perception of H1N1, preventive measures and uptake of H1N1 vaccination during the pandemic. A total of 1657 HCWs completed the survey. A quarter of the participants reported receiving the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Occupation (being a doctor), receiving seasonal flu vaccine and believing in the effectiveness of the vaccine were all strongly associated with accepting the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Over a thousand participants (61%, 1008/1657) agreed that they were 'concerned about the side effects of the swine flu vaccine', while 758 (46%) were 'concerned that the vaccine had not been tested adequately'. While studies reported high rates of willingness toreceive the vaccine,in reality these did not transpire. Aside from promoting seasonal flu vaccination, authorities need to start educational campaigns much earlier in a pandemic. Programs that are simultaneously launched with the introduction of the vaccine will not be as successful, as those which have built momentum alongside the pandemic. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Rieber H.,MVZ Dr. Stein and Colleagues | Frontzek A.,MVZ Dr. Stein and Colleagues | Bell A.,Marien Hospital | Frommelt L.,Institute for Infectious Diseases
Anaerobe | Year: 2016

We report on the first case of a periprosthetic joint infection with the anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive rod Robinsoniella peoriensis as the causative agent. The bacterium was first isolated from a swine manure storage pit and has so far rarely been associated with human infections. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Caslavska J.,Institute for Infectious Diseases | Thormann W.,Institute for Infectious Diseases
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2013

Work dealing with the monitoring of alcohol markers by CE performed during the past two decades led to the development of assays for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), ethyl sulfate, ethyl glucuronide, and phosphatidylethanol in body fluids and first attempts for the detection of the urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio and stable hemoglobin acetaldehyde adducts. Most notably are assays for CDT that have been commercialized and are being used in many laboratories under routine conditions. This paper provides insight into the development, specifications, and use of the currently known CE-based assays suitable to detect alcohol markers. The achievements reached so far indicate that CE is an attractive technology for monitoring alcohol markers. This is particularly seen with the CDT assays that do not require an elaborate sample pretreatment and thus could be fully automated for high-throughput analyses on multicapillary instruments. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | University of Bern and Institute for Infectious Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2015

An unusual increase in the number of Campylobacter concisus isolates found in stool cultures provoked an outbreak investigation at Bern University Hospital. No epidemiological links were found between the cases, and the Campylobacter isolates were clonally unrelated. A change in culture conditions to a hydrogen-rich atmosphere enhancing growth of C. concisus was deemed responsible for this pseudo-outbreak.


PubMed | Marien Hospital, MVZ Dr. Stein and Colleagues and Institute for Infectious Diseases
Type: | Journal: Anaerobe | Year: 2016

We report on the first case of a periprosthetic joint infection with the anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive rod Robinsoniella peoriensis as the causative agent. The bacterium was first isolated from a swine manure storage pit and has so far rarely been associated with human infections.

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