Time filter

Source Type

Hesser F.,Market Analysis and Innovation Research Team | Wohner B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Meints T.,Plus MAT | Stern T.,I-Systems | Windsperger A.,Institute for Industrial Ecology
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2016

Purpose: Improving technical properties and the durability of wood-based products by modification in various processing technologies is subject to recent research and development activities. This study aimed at integrating environmental considerations during the research and development phase of a novel modification process for a multilayer wood parquet. Due to expected challenges when applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in this phase, the eco-profile of the modified multilayer wood parquet was referred to the original multilayer parquet by estimating payback period and identifying other payback options. Methods: An LCA was conducted during the research and development phase of the modification process at laboratory scale and is characterized as ex ante environmental screening of a newly developed technology. The environmental assessment of new products and manufacturing processes during the research and development phase, however, faces multifarious challenges, such as the definition of a functional unit and the service life length. In order to overcome these challenges, the idea was to answer the question under which circumstances the modification process pays back from the perspective of non-renewable energy use and global-warming potential. Aside from investigation of payback period, the feasibility of other payback options was systematically searched. Results and discussion: The extra resource input and the resulting increase in environmental burden of the modification of the multilayer parquet can be justified with the extension of service life length by 10 to 20 %, referring to global warming potential and non-renewable energy use, respectively. Other payback options found were adjusting chemical loading during modification, making renovations superfluous, or reducing transport effort. Other than transportation and renovation, which are user-dependent, only the modification lies within the scope of the parquet producer. Conclusions: The payback concept is found suitable for comparative estimations on the magnitude of change in environmental performance of product variants during research and development. By investigating on multiple payback options, it was enabled to frame the change in environmental performance, which is essential in order to define the scope of further research and development in a target-oriented way. The possibility of using LCA for an environmental technology valuation at an early stage in product and process development is demonstrated in this study. © 2016 The Author(s)

Ivan S.,Institute for Industrial Ecology | Lucaciu I.,Institute for Industrial Ecology | Rusu G.,Institute for Industrial Ecology | Vasile I.,Institute for Industrial Ecology
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2010

The research work presents the evaluation of superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity modifications as a result of toxic effect of dangerous chemicals. Superoxide dismutase is an efficient enzymatic antioxidant and plays an important role in the protection reaction of organism against negative effects of the free radicals. Therefore it is necessary to study this enzyme for determination of dangerous chemicals toxicity on it For this study two pesticides were selected: atrasine and mevinphos, whose toxicity characteristics have been determined after performing ecotoxicological test to evaluate their risk on aquatic organisms (fish of Cyprinus carpió species), sensitive to the toxic action of compounds taken in study. In order to obtain relevant results, an enzymatic kit for measure of superoxide dismutases (MnSOD and CuZnSOD) has been used. Measurements were performed from protein extracts obtained from intoxicated fish organs. The biochemical method is a spectrometrical method and tetrazolium salt is used for superoxide radical detection, produced by xantinoxidase. The obtained results have led to the conclusion that dangerous chemicals taken in study determine catalytic activity modifications of superoxide dismutase toward blank. In addition, in case of mevinphos the enzyme may be completely inhibited, this being suffocated by the proper metabolites (H2O2 or *OH). These modifications of superoxide dismutase activity can lead to drastic consequences on aquatic organisms.

Petrescu M.,Institute for Industrial Ecology | Batrinescu G.,Institute for Industrial Ecology | Stanescu B.,Institute for Industrial Ecology
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2011

Our study presents the evaluation of gaseous emissions generated by a non-compliant municipal landfill after its closure (municipal landfill Rǎdǎuţi). To this end we measured and interpreted the characteristics of gaseous emissions captured in two monitoring boreholes made on the deposit surface (F1 and F2). The main components of landfill gas are CH4 and CO2, and in lower proportions O2, N2 and nitrogen oxides, and also traces ofH2S and CO. Their concentrations were measured using a portable gas analyzer GA type 2000Plus, which recorded simultaneously temperature and pressure data of the landfill gas. The high concentration of about 60% CH4 and approximately 39% CO2 in the landfill gas captured in two different areas (F1 and F2) shows the polluting character of those emissions with a direct impact on the environmental component air, due to the greenhouse effect produced by those two components. Moreover, the characteristics of the measured gaseous emissions (a CH4 content above 50%, a 2-3 l/h flow rate) indicates they have significant energy potential and represent a possible source of renewable energy.

Loading Institute for Industrial Ecology collaborators
Loading Institute for Industrial Ecology collaborators