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Halle (Saale), Germany

Villabona L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Villabona L.,El Rosario University | Villabona L.,Institute for Medical Immunology
Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to establish a novel approach for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded-derived DNA. HLAs can be a prognostic factor in cancer and have an extensive polymorphism. This polymorphism is predominantly restricted to exons, which encode the peptide-binding domain of the protein. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material is routinely collected in the clinic and therefore a great source of DNA for genetic analyses. However, its low quality due to fragmentation and nucleotide changes has often created obstacles in designing genetic assays. In this study, we amplified the most polymorphic exons of the HLA-A gene, exons 2, 3, and 4, in 16 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples >10 years old. These tissue samples belonged to patients already HLA-typed by peripheral blood samples at the routine laboratory. Acquired amplification products were used for sequencing, which provided enough information to establish an HLA allele. The same method was applied to DNA extracted from peripheral blood from a healthy volunteer with known HLA type. Of the samples, 14/16 (88%) were successfully typed, in one sample only one of the alleles could be determined, and in one sample no allele could be determined. The amplification of the most polymorphic exons of HLA-A was a successful alternative when DNA quality prevented positive results with previously described methods. The method is usable when an HLA type is needed but the patients are deceased and/or no whole blood samples can be collected. It has thus potential to be used in several fields such as the clinic, research, and forensic science. Source

Frischer J.M.,Medical University of Vienna | Reindl M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Kunz B.,Innsbruck Medical University | Berger T.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2014

Background and objective: Interactions between TIRC7 (a novel seven-transmembrane receptor on activated lymphocytes) and its ligand HLA-DR might be involved in the inflammatory process in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Methods comprised immunohistochemistry and microscopy on archival MS autopsies, proliferation-, cytokine-, and surface-staining assays using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from MS patients and an in vitro model. Results: TIRC7 was expressed in brain-infiltrating lymphocytes and strongly correlated with disease activity in MS. TIRC7 expression was reduced in T cells and induced in B cells in PBLs obtained from MS patients. After ex vivo activation, T cell expression of TIRC7 was restored in patients with active MS disease. The interaction of TIRC7+ T lymphocytes with cells expressing HLA-DR on their surface led to T cell proliferation and activation whereas an anti- TIRC7 mAb preventing interactions with its ligand inhibited proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cytokine expression in T cells obtained from MS patients and in myelin basic protein-specific T cell clone. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that TIRC7 is involved in inflammation in MS and anti-TIRC7 mAb can prevent immune activation via selective inhibition of Th1- and Th17-associated cytokine expression. This targeting approach may become a novel treatment option for MS. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:. Source

Survival of lung transplant recipients is currently limited by the primary graft dysfunction, an acute phenomenon occurring within 72 hours after the transplantation, but also by the chronic rejection that appears more than one year later. IL-17 might be implicated in these two diseases. The heterotopic trachea transplantation in mice generates epithelial lesions mimicking the human pathology. Using this model, we show that IL-17 was crucially implicated in early, but not chronic lesions after transplantation. The main intragraft cellular sources of IL-17 are recipient-derived gammadelta T cells. However, the IL17-dependent lesions in our model are not mediated by a direct effect of IL-17 on donor-derived cells. Nevertheless, its inhibition protects CK-14+ basal epithelial stem cells that are known to be capable of renewing of the whole epithelium. Source

Guedj M.,University of Toulouse II - Le Mirail | Ballester S.,University of Toulouse II - Le Mirail | Kamar N.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Kamar N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2013

Background: The goal of this health-psychology study was to investigate the range of motives that make someone consent or refuse participation in a clinical transplant trial. Methods: The study involved (i) preparatory interviews with five transplant patients who took part in clinical trials and five persons from the general public; (ii) we created a questionnaire with scaled responses; (iii) we selected 468 patients, divided into two groups: patients waiting for a transplant and patients who already had a transplant; (iv) we obtained patient consents, sent out the questionnaire, and recorded responses; (v) data were analysed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factorial analyses, correlations and regressions. Results: Two hundred and ten patients answered the questionnaire. Motives were classified into the following: (i) Motives to consent participating in a clinical trial (pride in participating, hope for better quality of life, sufficient and clear information, discussion with others participating in a trial, altruism); or (ii) Motives to refuse participating (no information on medical teams, lack of explanation, fear of additional expenses, being considered a "guinea pig"). Conclusions: This study contributes to our understanding of the motivations of patients who accepted or refused participation in a clinical transplantation trial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Rother M.,Institute for Medical Immunology | Krohn S.,Charite Centrum | Kania G.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Vanhoutte D.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 15 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background- CCN1 is an evolutionary ancient matricellular protein that modulates biological processes associated with tissue repair. Induction at sites of injury was observed in conditions ranging from skin wounds to cardiac diseases, including ischemic and inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Here, we provide evidence of a novel function of CCN1 as a modulator of immune cell migration. Methods and results- To understand the role of CCN1 in cardiomyopathies and to evaluate its therapeutic potential, we overexpressed CCN1 using an adenoviral hepatotropic vector in murine experimental autoimmune myocarditis, a model of human inflammatory cardiomyopathy. CCN1 gene transfer significantly reduced cardiac disease score and immune cell infiltration. In vivo tracking of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged CCN1 revealed binding to spleen macrophages but not to cardiomyocytes. Unexpectedly, CCN1 therapy left cardiac chemokine and cytokine expression unchanged but instead strongly inhibited the migration of spleen macrophages and lymphocytes, as evidenced by ex vivo transwell assays. In accordance with the ex vivo data, in vitro preincubation with CCN1 diminished transwell migration of human monocytes and abrogated their chemotactic response to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Further mechanistic studies showed that CCN1-driven modulation of immune cell migration is mimicked in part by cyclic RGD peptides currently in clinical evaluation for cancer therapy. Conclusions- Our proof-of-concept study suggests investigation of CCN1 as a novel, endogenous "parent compound" for chemotaxis modulation and of cyclic RGD peptides as a class of partially CCN1-mimetic drugs with immediate potential for clinical evaluation in cardiac diseases associated with chronic pathogenic inflammation. © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

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