Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin

fur, Germany

Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin

fur, Germany

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Kreimann M.,University of Greifswald | Brandt S.,University of Greifswald | Krauel K.,Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin | Block S.,University of Greifswald | And 4 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

The chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) undergoes conformational changes when complexing with polyanions. This can induce the antibody-mediated adverse drug effect of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Understanding why the endogenous protein PF4 becomes immunogenic when complexing with heparin is important for the development of other negatively charged drugs and may also hint toward more general mechanisms underlying the induction of autoantibodies to other proteins. By circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry we characterized the interaction of PF4 with unfractionated heparin (UFH), its 16-, 8-, and 6-mer subfractions, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and the pentasaccharide fondaparinux. To bind anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, PF4/heparin complexes require (1) an increase in PF4 anti-parallel β-sheets exceeding ∼30%(achieved by UFH, LMWH, 16-, 8-, 6-mer), (2) formation of multimolecular complexes (UFH, 16-, 8-mer), and (3) energy (needed for a conformational change), which is released by binding of ≥11-mer heparins to PF4, but not by smaller heparins. These findings may help to synthesize safer heparins. Beyond PF4 and HIT, the methods applied in the current study may be relevant to unravel mechanisms making other endogenous proteins more vulnerable to undergo conformational changes with little energy requirement (eg, point mutations and post-translational modifications) and thereby predisposing them to become immunogenic. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | Institute For Physik, ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz, Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin and Institute For Pharmazie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Blood | Year: 2014

The chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) undergoes conformational changes when complexing with polyanions. This can induce the antibody-mediated adverse drug effect of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Understanding why the endogenous protein PF4 becomes immunogenic when complexing with heparin is important for the development of other negatively charged drugs and may also hint toward more general mechanisms underlying the induction of autoantibodies to other proteins. By circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry we characterized the interaction of PF4 with unfractionated heparin (UFH), its 16-, 8-, and 6-mer subfractions, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and the pentasaccharide fondaparinux. To bind anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, PF4/heparin complexes require (1) an increase in PF4 antiparallel -sheets exceeding 30% (achieved by UFH, LMWH, 16-, 8-, 6-mer), (2) formation of multimolecular complexes (UFH, 16-, 8-mer), and (3) energy (needed for a conformational change), which is released by binding of 11-mer heparins to PF4, but not by smaller heparins. These findings may help to synthesize safer heparins. Beyond PF4 and HIT, the methods applied in the current study may be relevant to unravel mechanisms making other endogenous proteins more vulnerable to undergo conformational changes with little energy requirement (eg, point mutations and post-translational modifications) and thereby predisposing them to become immunogenic.


Block S.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz | Block S.,Chalmers University of Technology | Greinacher A.,Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin | Helm C.A.,University of Greifswald | Delcea M.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

Immunogenicity (i.e., the ability to initiate immune reactions) is one of the major challenges for the development of new drugs, as it may turn the developed drug therapeutically ineffective or cause severe immune-related effects. Using single molecule force spectroscopy, we study rupture forces between the positively charged, endogenous protein platelet factor 4 (PF4; also known as CXC chemokine ligand 4, CXCL4) and the antithrombotic drug heparin and other negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are known to form immunogenic PF4/GAG-complexes (e.g., heparin and dextran sulfate) as well as non-immunogenic complexes (e.g., chondroitin sulfate A). Our measurements suggest that the average number of sulfate groups per monosaccharide unit (i.e., the degree of sulfation DS) does not affect the unbinding characteristics of single PF4/GAG-bonds (reaction coordinate x0 = 2.2 ± 0.2 Å, energy barrier ΔG ≈ -1 kBT). However, the average number of GAG bonds formed to a single PF4 molecule increases with increasing DS as indicated by a rising frequency of unbinding events, suggesting a multivalent binding scheme between PF4 and GAGs. Our studies show that at least three GAG bonds have to be formed to each PF4 molecule to induce epitope formation on the PF4/GAG-complex to which PF4/GAG-complex specific antibodies bind. Hence, GAG-based drugs that form less than three bonds per PF4 molecule are unlikely to constitute PF4/drug-complexes that are of immunologic relevance. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Medvedev N.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz | Palankar R.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz | Krauel K.,Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin | Greinacher A.,Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin | Delcea M.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2014

We report a strategy to generate by electron beam lithography high fidelity micropatterned arrays to assess the interaction of single platelets with immobilised ligands. As a proof-of-principle we functionalised the microarrays with platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin-IgG complexes. We embedded biotinylated water-soluble quantum dots into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated micropatterned arrays and functionalised them via streptavidin to bind biotinylated ligands, here biotinylated- PF4/heparin complexes. The integrity of the PF4/heparin-complexes was shown by binding of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies. Ligand density was quantified by immunofluorescence and immunogold antibody labelling. Real-time calcium imaging was employed for read-out of single platelets activated on micropatterned surfaces functionalised with PF4/heparin-IgG complexes. With the smallest micropatterns (0.5×0.5 μm) we show that single platelets become strongly activated by binding to surface-immobilised PF4/heparin-IgG, while on larger micropatterns (10×10 μm), platelet aggregates formed. These findings that HIT antibodies can cause platelet activation on microarrays illustrate how this novel method opens new avenues to study platelet function at single cell level. Generating functionalized microarray surfaces to which highly complex ligands can be bound and quantified has the potential for platelet and other cell function assays integrated into high-throughput microfluidic microdevices. © Schattauer 2014.


Brandt S.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz | Krauel K.,ZIK HIKE Zentrum fur Innovationskompetenz | Krauel K.,Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin | Gottschalk K.E.,University of Ulm | And 5 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2014

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the most frequent drug-induced immune reaction affecting blood cells. Its antigen is formed when the chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes with polyanions. By assessing polyanions of varying length and degree of sulfation using immunoassay and circular dichroism (CD)-spectroscopy, we show that PF4 structural changes resulting in antiparallel β-sheet content >30% make PF4/polyanion complexes antigenic. Further, we found that polyphosphates (polyP-55) induce antigenic changes on PF4, whereas fondaparinux does not. We provide a model suggesting that conformational changes exposing antigens on PF4/polyanion complexes occur in the hairpin involving AA 32-38, which form together with C-terminal AA (66-70) of the adjacent PF4 monomer a continuous patch on the PF4 tetramer surface, explaining why only tetrameric PF4 molecules express "HIT antigens". The correlation of antibody binding in immunoassays with PF4 structural changes provides the intriguing possibility that CD-spectroscopy could become the first antibody-independent, in vitro method to predict potential immunogenicity of drugs. CD-spectroscopy could identify compounds during preclinical drug development that induce PF4 structural changes correlated with antigenicity. The clinical relevance can then be specifically addressed during clinical trials. Whether these findings can be transferred to other endogenous proteins requires further studies. © Schattauer 2014.


PubMed | University of Greifswald and Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis | Year: 2015

Short chain polyphosphates (polyP) are pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory platelet released inorganic polymers. The platelet chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4) binds to lipid A on bacteria, inducing an antibody mediated host defense mechanism, which can be misdirected against PF4/heparin complexes leading to the adverse drug reaction heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Here, we demonstrate that PF4 complex formation with soluble short chain polyP contributes to host defense mechanisms. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that PF4 changed its structure upon binding to polyP in a similar way as seen in PF4/heparin complexes. Consequently, PF4/polyP complexes exposed neoepitopes to which human anti-PF4/heparin antibodies bound. PolyP enhanced binding of PF4 to Escherichia coli, hereby facilitating bacterial opsonisation and, in the presence of human anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies, phagocytosis. Our study indicates a role of polyP in enhancing PF4-mediated defense mechanisms of innate immunity.


PubMed | Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis | Year: 2015

Several new anticoagulants have entered the clinical arena or are under clinical development. These drugs include indirect (fondaparinux) and direct oral factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban), and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. Especially the oral direct FXa and FIIa inhibitors overcome many of the shortcomings of heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). They are administered orally at a fixed dose; regular monitoring is not necessary; interaction with other drugs or nutrition occur less than with VKAs and they are at least as effective as VKAs for most indications tested. They are associated with about 50% less intracranial bleeding than VKAs. Nevertheless, they are still associated with bleeding complications. Bleeding can occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or urgent surgery. In such situations rapid reversal of the anticoagulant effect is highly desirable. For unfractionated heparin protamine, and for VKAs prothrombin complex concentrates are available as specific antidotes. Under clinical development are: for the direct and indirect FXa inhibitors a modified recombinant FXa (andexanet alpha), which lacks enzymatic activity; and for dabigatran a Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody (idarucizumab). In addition a small molecule (aripazine) has entered phase I clinical trials, which seems to inhibit nearly all anticoagulants but VKAs and argatroban. This review summarises the current options and strategies in development to antagonise anticoagulants with a focus on the status of the development of antidotes for the oral direct FXa and FIIa inhibitors.


PubMed | University of Greifswald and Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis | Year: 2016

The antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is expressed on platelet factor 4 (PF4) when PF4 complexes with polyanions. In recent years, biophysical tools (e.g. circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, x-ray crystallography, electron microscopy) have gained an important role to complement immunological and functional assays for better understanding the interaction of heparin with PF4. This allowed identification of those features that make PF4 immunogenic (e.g. a certain conformational change induced by the polyanion, a threshold energy of the complexes, the existence of multimeric complexes, a certain number of bonds formed by PF4 with the polyanion) and to characterize the morphology and thermal stability of complexes formed by the protein with polyanions. These findings and methods can now be applied to test new drugs for their potential to induce the HIT-like adverse drug effect by preclinical in vitro testing. The methods and techniques applied to characterize the antigen in HIT may also be helpful to better understand the mechanisms underlying other antibody-mediated disorders in thrombosis and hemostasis (e.g. acquired hemophilia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms making the endogenous protein PF4 immunogenic may help to understand the mechanisms underlying other autoimmune disorders.


PubMed | Blutspendedienst Deutsches Rotes Kreuz Mecklenburg Vorpommern, Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin, Haema Blutspendezentrum Rostock, Universitatsmedizin Rostock and Universitatsmedizin Greifswald
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transfusion | Year: 2016

Changes in demographics with increases in older age groups and decreases in younger age groups imply an increased demand for blood transfusions paralleled by a decrease in the population eligible for blood donation. However, more restrictive transfusion triggers and the patient blood management initiative also reduce the demand for red blood cells (RBCs). Eastern Germany is a model region for the impact of demographic changes, which manifest in this region approximately 10 years earlier than in other regions due to the 50% birth rate decline after 1989.We report the 2010 longitudinal 5-year follow-up of the study assessing all whole blood donations and RBC transfusions in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We compared the projections that were made 5years ago with: 1) the current age structure of the blood donor and transfusion recipient populations and 2) its impact on blood demand and blood donation numbers in specific age groups.Transfusion rates were lower and blood donation rates were higher than predicted in 2005. Although transfusion rates/1000 decreased in nearly all age groups, the overall annual transfusion rate increased to 66.4 RBC units/1000 (in 2005, 62.2/1000) due to the absolute increase in the elderly population. Despite a 7.4% decline in the population 18 to 65 years of age, whole blood donations increased by 11.7% between 2005 and 2010, but thereafter decreased by 21% (first-time donors by 39.4%), reflecting the effect of the post-1990 birth rate decline on the donor population.Changes in demography and medical practice impact the delicate balance between available blood supply and potential future transfusion needs. In times of pronounced demographic changes, regular monitoring of the blood demand and age structure of blood recipients and donors is required to allow strategic planning to prevent blood shortages or overproduction.


PubMed | Institute For Immunologie Und Transfusionsmedizin and Universitatsmedizin Greifswald
Type: | Journal: Laryngo- rhino- otologie | Year: 2015

Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in Otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis, and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives a practical advise based on the current literature with an emphasis for patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery.

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