Hinrichsen H.-H.,elmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel |
Kuhn W.,Institute of Oceanography |
Peck M.A.,Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science |
Voss R.,elmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2012
We employed coupled 3-D biophysical models to better understand the effects of physical forcing conditions as well as differences in vertical distribution and growth performance on the spatial distribution of larval sprat (. Sprattus sprattus) in the North and the Baltic Sea. Our model simulations analysed the influence of abiotic and biotic forcing variability on larval transport and the seasonal and inter-annual variability in spatial distribution of larvae originating from different spawning areas in each of the two systems. Due to strong spatial and temporal differences in temperature, drift durations differed between the two ecosystems. During cold spring and warm summer periods, drift durations in the Baltic were ∼35 and 15. days, respectively, but were somewhat shorter (30 and 10. d) in the North Sea. Changes in larval feeding rates markedly impacted larval growth rate and stage duration, and, hence, environmental histories experienced by larvae as well as their final distribution. Generally, specific spawning sites were relatively well connected to specific juvenile nursery areas in the Baltic. However, in the North Sea, considerable mixing of sprat populations occurred with frontal areas acted as convergence zones for older larvae originating from different spawning sites. The mixing and/or co-occurrence of 18-mm larvae from different source regions were greatest (least) in the early spring (summer) for larvae at colder (warmer) temperatures having longer (shorter) drift durations. Generally, such high mixing probability would not promote small- or medium-scale population distinctness of North Sea sprat. The results of our coupled hydrodynamic/trophodynamic model simulations provide a baseline in quantifying and understanding larval sprat transport in these different ecosystems and exemplify the extent to which environmental variability (e.g., differences in temperature as well as prey availability) can influence spatial distributions of larval fish. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Eklof A.,University of Chicago |
Eklof A.,Linkoping University |
Jacob U.,Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science |
Kopp J.,University of Chicago |
And 18 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013
How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, including food webs, antagonistic and mutualistic networks, and find that the number of dimensions needed to completely explain all interactions is small (< 10), with model selection favouring less than five. Using 18 high-quality webs including several species traits, we identify which traits contribute the most to explaining network structure. We show that accounting for a few traits dramatically improves our understanding of the structure of ecological networks. Matching traits for resources and consumers, for example, fruit size and bill gape, are the most successful combinations. These results link ecologically important species attributes to large-scale community structure. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Rehberg-Haas S.,GMA Society Association for Marine Aquaculture Ltd |
Rehberg-Haas S.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute |
Hammer C.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute |
Hillgruber N.,University of Alaska Fairbanks |
And 4 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2012
Previous studies showed that Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) settle to demersal life at a given size, while the annulus is formed seasonally, irrespective of size. The goal of this study was to examine the timing of check formation in juvenile Baltic cod otoliths to validate macrostructural ageing and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back-calculation of hatch dates indicated hatching from April to June and from February to August in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Juveniles formed either one or two translucent rings. The first translucent ring started to form ∼3 months post-hatch and was interpreted as a settlement check, since it appeared to be a function of age and/or size and not season. Deposition of the second ring began in mid October to early November irrespective of fish size and/or age, thus indicating that this ring may represent the first annulus of Baltic cod. Both rings were clearly distinguishable in individuals hatched between February and May, but were merged in those fish where settlement coincided with the seasonally formed second ring. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Hollowed A.B.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Barange M.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory |
Beamish R.J.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans |
Brander K.,Technical University of Denmark |
And 17 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2013
Hollowed, A. B., Barange, M., Beamish, R., Brander, K., Cochrane, K., Drinkwater, K., Foreman, M., Hare, J., Holt, J., Ito, S-I., Kim, S., King, J., Loeng, H., MacKenzie, B., Mueter, F., Okey, T., Peck, M. A., Radchenko, V., Rice, J., Schirripa, M., Yatsu, A., and Yamanaka, Y. 2013. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 1023-1037.This paper reviews current literature on the projected effects of climate change on marine fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities throughout the northern hemisphere. The review addresses the following issues: (i) expected impacts on ecosystem productivity and habitat quantity and quality; (ii) impacts of changes in production and habitat on marine fish and shellfish species including effects on the community species composition, spatial distributions, interactions, and vital rates of fish and shellfish; (iii) impacts on fisheries and their associated communities; (iv) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming in many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where relative impacts by region could be compared on a hemispheric or global level. Eight research foci were identified that will improve the projections of climate impacts on fish, fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities. © 2013 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.