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Hoffman R.,Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making | Year: 2015

Core elements of Endsley's models of situation awareness can be found in the history of the psychology of attention. History affords cautionary tales about the fuzzy nature of all attention constructs, the trap of reification, and the benefits of mindfulness in the modeling of cognitive phenomena. © 2015 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Atkinson D.J.,Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
AAAI Spring Symposium - Technical Report | Year: 2015

The central thesis of this paper is that the technology of intelligent, autonomous machines gives rise to novel fault modes that are not seen in other types of automation. As a consequence, autonomous systems provide new vectors for cyber-attack with the potential consequence of subversion, degraded behavior or outright failure of the autonomous system. While we can only pursue the analogy so far. maladaptive behavior and the other symptoms of these fault modes in some cases may resemble those found in humans. The term "psychopathology" is applied to fault modes of the human mind, but as yet we have no equivalent area of study for intelligent, autonomous machines. This area requires further study in order to document and explain the symptoms of unique faults in intelligent systems, whether they occur in nominal conditions or as a result of an outside, purposeful attack. By analyzing algorithms, architectures and what can go wrong with autonomous machines, we may a) gain insight into mechanisms of intelligence: b) learn how to design out. work around or otherwise mitigate these new failure modes; c) identify potential new cyber-security risks: d) increase the trustworthiness of machine intelligence. Vigilancc and attention management mechanisms are identified as specific areas of risk. Copyright © 2015, AAAI Press.

Kerle N.,University of Twente | Hoffman R.R.,Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science | Year: 2013

Remote sensing is increasingly used to assess disaster damage, traditionally by professional image analysts. A recent alternative is crowdsourcing by volunteers experienced in remote sensing, using internet-based mapping portals. We identify a range of problems in current approaches, including how volunteers can best be instructed for the task, ensuring that instructions are accurately understood and translate into valid results, or how the mapping scheme must be adapted for different map user needs. The volunteers, the mapping organizers, and the map users all perform complex cognitive tasks, yet little is known about the actual information needs of the users. We also identify problematic assumptions about the capabilities of the volunteers, principally related to the ability to perform the mapping, and to understand mapping instructions unambiguously. We propose that any robust scheme for collaborative damage mapping must rely on Cognitive Systems Engineering and its principal method, Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA), to understand the information and decision requirements of the map and image users, and how the volunteers can be optimally instructed and their mapping contributions merged into suitable map products. We recommend an iterative approach involving map users, remote sensing specialists, cognitive systems engineers and instructional designers, as well as experimental psychologists. © 2013 Author(s).

Hoffman R.R.,Institute for Human and Machine Cognition | Woods D.D.,Ohio State University
IEEE Intelligent Systems | Year: 2011

Macrocognitive work systems are complex adaptive systems designed to support near-continuous interdependencies among humans and intelligent machines to carry out joint cognitive work that includes functions such as sensemaking, replanning, mental projection to the future, and coordination. The effort to identify empirical laws and use them to construct a formal theory led the authors to the identification of fundamental trade-offs that place performance limits on all macrocognitive work systems. This article presents five trade-offs that define these limits. It also illustrates how empirical regularities about the performance of human work systems emerge from the trade-offs. © 2006 IEEE.

Hoffman R.R.,Institute for Human and Machine Cognition | Deal S.V.,Deal Corporation | Potter S.,Charles River Analytics Inc.
IEEE Intelligent Systems | Year: 2010

Software system development processes are often misaligned with the challenges faced by development teams. This article proposed a Practitioner's Cycle development approach, which suggests one way of bringing artisanship back into the procurement process. Through incremental, continual interaction with stakeholders, this approach lets developers begin system design and development with cognitive task analysis to understand the current work and then continue investigating the envisioned world as new technologies and work methods are created and tested. © 2010 IEEE.

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