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San Juan Bosco, Spain

Kaufman J.,Brandeis University | Kaufman J.,Harvard University | Liu Y.,Foreign Loan Office | Fang J.,Institute for Health science
Global Public Health | Year: 2012

China's new health reform initiative aims to provide quality accessible health care to all, including remote rural populations, by 2020. Public health insurance coverage for the rural poor has increased, but rural women have fared worse because of lower status and lack of voice in shaping the services they need. Use of prenatal care, safe delivery and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) services is inadequate and service seeking for health problems remains lower for men. We present findings from a study of gender and health equity in rural China from 2002 to 2008 and offer recommendations from over a decade of applied research on reproductive health in rural China. Three studies, conducted in poor counties between 1994 and 2008, identified problems in access and pilot tested interventions and mechanisms to increase women's participation in health planning. They were done in conjunction with a World Bank programme and the global Gender and Health Equity Network (GHEN). Reproductive health service-seeking improved and the study interventions increased local government commitment to providing such services through new health insurance mechanisms. Findings from the studies were summarised into recommendations on gender and health for inclusion in new health reform efforts. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Hongmei P.,Institute for Health science | Yulan S.,University of Kentucky | Lishi Z.,University of Sichuan
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2011

Thyroid is a frequent target for endocrine effects of pesticides. Thyroglobulin (TG) and iodide uptake are crucial to thyroid hormone synthesis and may be targets of thyroid-disrupting chemicals. In our study, thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells were treated with amitrole, an inhibitor of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the effects on TG and total iodide uptake were observed. The results showed that 1-100 mg/L amitrole had no marked effects on FRTL-5 cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. However, it significantly increased the transcription of tg gene and inhibited the total iodide uptake. And 10-100 mg/L amitrole significantly decreased TG in the culture medium. The data suggests amitrole may disrupt the expression and secretion of TG and iodide uptake. © The Author(s) 2011. Source


Moyo D.,Institute for Health science | Tanthuma G.,Institute for Health science | Mushisha O.,Institute for Health science | Kwadiba G.,Institute for Health science | And 7 more authors.
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Background. There is little in the literature on HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. To assess the characteristics of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted at 4 sites. Each HIV-infected patient with DM (n=48) was matched with 2 HIV-infected controls (n=108) by age (±2 years) and sex. Primary analysis was conditional logistic regression to estimate univariate odds and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each characteristic. Results. There was no significant association between co-morbid diseases, tuberculosis, hypertension or cancer and risk of diabetes. DM patients were more likely to have higher pre-ART weight (odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.14). HIV-infected adults >70 kg were significantly more likely to have DM (OR 12.30; 95% CI 1.40 - 107.98). Participants receiving efavirenz (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.44 - 14.57) or protease inhibitor therapy (OR 20.7; 95% CI 1.79 - 240.02) were more likely to have DM. Neither mean pre-ART CD4 cell count (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.99 - 1.01) nor pre-ART viral load >100 000 copies/ml (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.21 - 2.43) were associated with a significant risk of diabetes. Conclusions. These findings suggest a complex interrelation among traditional host factors and treatment-related metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of DM inpatients receiving ART. Notably, pre-ART weight, particularly if >70 kg, is associated with the diagnosis of diabetes in HIV-infected patients in Botswana. Source


Moyo D.,Institute for Health science | Tanthuma G.,Institute for Health science | Cary M.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Mushisha O.,Institute for Health science | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

We conducted a retrospective cohort study assessing the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and immune recovery in HIV-infected adults. Immune reconstitution after initiating antiretroviral therapy was more rapid in DM patients (120.4. cells/year) compared to non-DM patients (94.2. cells/year, p< 0.023). Metformin use was associated with improved CD4 recovery (p= 0.034). © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Auffray C.,European Institute for Systems Biology and Medicine | Auffray C.,University of Lyon | Balling R.,University of Luxembourg | Barroso I.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | And 57 more authors.
Genome Medicine | Year: 2016

Medicine and healthcare are undergoing profound changes. Whole-genome sequencing and high-resolution imaging technologies are key drivers of this rapid and crucial transformation. Technological innovation combined with automation and miniaturization has triggered an explosion in data production that will soon reach exabyte proportions. How are we going to deal with this exponential increase in data production? The potential of "big data" for improving health is enormous but, at the same time, we face a wide range of challenges to overcome urgently. Europe is very proud of its cultural diversity; however, exploitation of the data made available through advances in genomic medicine, imaging, and a wide range of mobile health applications or connected devices is hampered by numerous historical, technical, legal, and political barriers. European health systems and databases are diverse and fragmented. There is a lack of harmonization of data formats, processing, analysis, and data transfer, which leads to incompatibilities and lost opportunities. Legal frameworks for data sharing are evolving. Clinicians, researchers, and citizens need improved methods, tools, and training to generate, analyze, and query data effectively. Addressing these barriers will contribute to creating the European Single Market for health, which will improve health and healthcare for all Europeans. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

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